46 votes

Why isn't 'chemically-strengthened glass' made with potassium carbonate to begin with?

The potassium is not added first because the potassium does not intrinsically make stronger glass, it is the substitution of a larger ion for a smaller one at the surface that does. To understand why ...
A.K.'s user avatar
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26 votes

Why isn't 'chemically-strengthened glass' made with potassium carbonate to begin with?

Chemically-strengthened glass is similar tempered glass in that the outside of the glass is under compression, while the inside is not compressed. If all the sodium in chemically-strengthened glass ...
DrMoishe Pippik's user avatar
21 votes
Accepted

What makes Gorilla Glass more durable with each generation?

Are there other ways of "chemical strengthening" besides cationic exchange that can be utilized to strengthen the glass, keeping it flexible and less fragile at the same time? In a word: No. To ...
A.K.'s user avatar
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18 votes

Can glass be deionized?

You can indeed "harden" glass by exchanging ions on the surface, but not because it turns into quartz glass. Quartz glass is mostly so robust because it has an extremely small thermal expansion ...
Karl's user avatar
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13 votes

Melting point of obsidian

Obsidian This is a volcanic glass, formed when rhyolitic lavas cool too quickly for crystals to form. From a chemistry point of view, it's a mixture of silicon dioxide, aluminium oxide, with sodium ,...
Andrew Jon Dodds's user avatar
12 votes
Accepted

Why is xenon hexafluoride not stored in glass?

$\ce{XeF_6}$ can't be stored in glass as it reacts with the silica that makes up the glass $\ce{2XeF_6 + SiO_2 -> 2XeOF_4 + SiF_4}$ This can proceed further to eventfully make $\ce{XeO_3}$: $\ce{...
Ian Bush's user avatar
  • 3,049
11 votes

How to identify a blow-out pipette?

Good to see classical analytical chemistry queries. These graduated pipettes or Mohr pipettes they are called, confuse even the relatively advanced users. First you have to check where the graduations ...
AChem's user avatar
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9 votes

Can olivine be used to make glass?

You could proceed from either end member of the olivine solid series and yield $\ce{SiO2}$ as you suggest. However, I'd consider mechanisms that have been researched in the course of studying so-...
Todd Minehardt's user avatar
8 votes
Accepted

What home products are reactive with glass?

Some rust and stain removers (like Whink) contain hydrofluoric acid* at low concentrations (1-2.3%) Here is the MSDS for Whink: https://www.whink.com/cmssites/ws0811www.whink.com/uploads/Documents/...
prof.kvothe's user avatar
8 votes

Does crystalline glass exist?

As Ivan explained, a glass is by definition amorphous. However, you can take a quartz crystal (silicon dioxide, which is the main ingredient of glass) if it is of high purity and optical quality, and ...
iad22agp's user avatar
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8 votes
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Gold Plating on Glass?

Gold plating glass could probably be 99.99% complete. It would make a nice mirror and would probably stay unoxidized for a long time. However, if I wanted to remove the gold, I think I would rinse ...
James Gaidis's user avatar
7 votes

What makes Gorilla Glass more durable with each generation?

To really answer this, you need to characterize the glass in terms of its properties, and not something like its ability to resist being scratched. Scratch resistance is a behaviour, and not a ...
AlanJ's user avatar
  • 254
7 votes
Accepted

Why does automotive glass shatter into tiny pieces but glass used in our houses into shards?

Let's start out by covering the Why? Glasses used in automobiles are designed to break in tiny pieces. Imagine you're driving down a dark highway hitting dangerously high speeds and then suddenly you ...
Avyansh Katiyar's user avatar
7 votes
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What is wrong with storing deionized water in glass containers?

It is very difficult to make a container that does not introduce impurities to a liquid you place into it. As mentioned in the comments to the question, storing in a glass bottle will result in ions ...
Karsten's user avatar
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7 votes
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Understanding the molar free energy to simulate phase separations (Na2O-SiO2)

In an Ideal solution, based on how many ways one can randomly arrange the constituents, one gets: $\Delta S_{mix} = -R(X_{A} \ln{X_{A}} + X_{B} \ln{X_{B}})$ with $X_{A}+X_{B} = 1$ being the relative ...
Jon Custer's user avatar
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6 votes

Can glass be made with anorthite?

In theory, yes it is possible. In practice, not really. First of all, the anorthite on the moon is never pure anorthite ($\ce{CaAl2Si2O8}$) but rather an anorthite-albite ($\ce{NaAlSi3O8}$) solid ...
Gimelist's user avatar
  • 5,274
6 votes

Why isn't 'chemically-strengthened glass' made with potassium carbonate to begin with?

As A.K. notes, it is the substitution of larger atoms for smaller atoms that adds stress to the glass, making it stronger. So you can't increase the stress by starting with a larger metal, but you ...
Jeffrey Hall's user avatar
6 votes
Accepted

What reaction could rubidium undergo in a vacuumed chamber with Macor ceramic and glass?

One candidate for reaction with the rubidium is silica, $\ce{SiO2}$. Reference [1] reports that black powders are formed when alkali metals are contacted with silica. Such powders are more stable in ...
Oscar Lanzi's user avatar
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6 votes

Can glass be deionized?

You could dealkalize the surface of a borosilicate glass to get rid of alkali ions, but I'm not aware of a method that allowed the extraction of alkali metals from the bulk of the glass. There are ...
Bdrs's user avatar
  • 733
6 votes

How to identify a blow-out pipette?

Elsewhere here, M. Farooq has given excellent answer for this analytical chemistry question. I like to explore this answer by explaining what are these lines means and some confusions arose from M. ...
Mathew Mahindaratne's user avatar
5 votes
Accepted

Can hydrofluoric acid etch glass at a pH of 7.0?

In $\ce{SiO2}$ etching, there are two active fluorine-containing species, $\ce{HF}$ and $\ce{HF2-}$. The rate of etching at 25 degrees C in Angstroms per second is: $$9.66[\ce{HF2-}] + 2.50 [\ce{HF}]...
DavePhD's user avatar
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5 votes
Accepted

Can olivine be used to make glass?

The previous answer is not really helpful because you would need huge amounts of CO2 which are not available on the moon. You need 2 moles of CO2 to generate 1 moles of SiO2. You simply do not have ...
Gimelist's user avatar
  • 5,274
5 votes

Carbon in Glass - XPS Analysis

Well, XPS analysis should detect atoms as light as Carbon, but not atoms as light as Hydrogen. Far be it from me to claim any expertise on microscope sliders, but I have used one or two in my career, ...
Stian's user avatar
  • 2,775
5 votes

How should you report measurements and uncertainty for a measuring cylinder with 0.5 mL graduations?

common convention is to report the uncertainty of an analogue instrument as plus or minus half of the smallest scale division Yes, this is merely a poor convention propagated by general chemistry ...
AChem's user avatar
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5 votes
Accepted

Can any compound form into an amorphous solid?

Whether a substance crystallizes or not largely depends on the rate of cooling or loss of solvent. K. Gibson states, "Cooling materials super-quickly... prevents the normal crystalline ...
DrMoishe Pippik's user avatar
4 votes

Is the surface of glass a fine layer of silanol?

Yes, it is correct that the surface of glass has silanol ($\ce{Si-O-H}$) at the surface. This is because water will react at the surface to relieve bond strain of a $\ce{Si-O-Si}$ bond to form $\ce{Si-...
A.K.'s user avatar
  • 12.5k
4 votes

Do xenon di- and tetrafluorides react with glass?

Firstly I'll note the title and the body of the question ask slightly different things; just because substance X doesn't react with glass doesn't mean substance X should be stored in glass. As far as ...
Ian Bush's user avatar
  • 3,049
4 votes

How does lime prevent soda lime glass from dissolving in water?

The addition of lime does indeed form calcium silicate, but it doesn't serve the purpose you mentioned. Silica of itself isn't water soluble, nor soda glass. The difference is in the crystalline ...
chemicalromance's user avatar
4 votes
Accepted

Cold process to make glass

Not glass per se, but silica is often produced chemically by silicon alkoxide gelation to create aerogels. The problem with creating glass by some cold process would be that the reaction side-...
DrMoishe Pippik's user avatar
4 votes
Accepted

Can you measure an IR spectrum of a sample inside a glass vial?

As EdV said, when you have aqueous samples, Raman spectroscopy is the way to go. The problem is not the container (which should not be glass etc),the problem is water. Its absorption will hide the ...
AChem's user avatar
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