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Recall that $\Delta G^\circ$ represents the difference in Gibbs free energy between an equilibrium state and a "standard state." This standard state is completely arbitrary, and the definition has changed slightly over time. Currently, IUPAC defines it as having all dissolved substances at a concentration of 1 mol/L and all gases at a partial ...


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This question is either confused or simply confusing. The concept of equilibrium implies reactant and products and energy interacting so that everything remains constant and cannot be applied to a one photon scenario unless that is intended to be allegorical. For a photon to interact with anything there must be an interchange of energy and momentum in such ...


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At equilibrium, the number of each species is constant. So if a molecule falls appart into two fragments, these fragments would recombine at the same rate. Thermodynamics is for looking at bulk properties, not individual particles. Pressure, temperature, entropy are not defined for single particles using equilibrium thermodynamics. Chemical reactions ...


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