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The single most important factor is strength ( mechanical compressive ); coal is heated to make coke, the resulting coke is stronger than the original coal. Also, coke helps to make the charge of iron oxides and limestone more porous to permit gas flow up and droplets of liquid iron and slag down. The coke oven heating drives off volatiles from the coal, ...

4

Without standard solutions and a fluorimeter, you can do a side-by-side comparison using a commercial tonic water and your solution. I just prevailed in getting a poor photograph of the beautiful blue fluorescence from a commercial tonic water (begins with an S), using 405 nm excitation (BluRay laser diode). The photo is below: The two cuvettes contain ...

3

There is another problem with this. Potassium permanganate is a very strong oxidizing agent, which is capable of oxidizing Chloride ions to Chlorine. This will result in additional consumption of $\ce{KMnO4}$ solution, which makes you think there is more iron in your screw than there actually is. To solve this, you should look up the titration of Iron ...

2

Although natural rubber and synthetic rubber display a poor chemical resistance to alkanes among others, they do not dissolve in alkanes. Your GC/MS traces (I believe that so because of alkane/alkene identification) have confirmed that since they have shown n-heptane as the main peak (I believe everything else are trace amounts exhibiting below your set-up ...

2

Believe it or not, aniline was actually isolated from coal tar way back in 1834. A chemist called Friedlieb Runge isolated aniline along with phenol from coal tar. He discovered that aniline produced a beautiful blue color when treated with chloride of lime (calcium hypochlorite). He named it cyanol/kyanol and that was the birth of the first aniline dye but ...

2

I didn't think Bessemer was used anymore. Spiegeleisen is more likely to be called ferro-manganese today. I expect it is added at the end to minimize losses of Mn to the slag. Mn does contribute to hardenability but the primary reason for its use is to combine with residual sulfur to make MnS . MnS stringers can be harmful but are an improvement because ...

2

I think the difference is due to the way eddy currents form Magnetohydrodynamics. As the current flows through the conductive liquid, a magnetic field is produced. This in turn causes the liquid to be pushed (at right angles to the current and field). In one version of the cell, this current causes stirring of the aluminum, alumina, flux mix. This is more ...

1

The above reasons to use LLE are focused on the compound thermal similarities and instabilities. But it does not take into the account the amount of compounds. While distillation separation can be great for major components, it may fail for minor one, and definitely for trace ones. The LLE is frequently used for separation and content enrichment of trace ...

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