43

Forget about the apple seeds, they contain about 1 to 4 mg amygdalin per gramm seeds (DOI). Instead, collect apricot seeds during the right season, the amygdalin content varies though the year and can be as high as 5% of the dry weight of the seed (DOI). It is probably advantagenous to break the husk with a nut cracker, a plier, etc. and cut the softer inner ...


24

So, assuming I am able to extract an unknown chemical of some specified group from a plant, is there any way for me to determine the chemical's structure? Yes. I don't really have access to these tools as student over the summer. I am willing to spend a small amount of money on this project, but no more than about one hundred dollars. Then probably no (at ...


13

Honestly, you probably wouldn't be able to get this done with just a highschool chem lab, at least not to a high purity (whether or not this is needed is debatable; in fact it could be interesting in the story because it would give a clue as to how it was produced, whereas pure cyanide wouldn't really tell the detective much). Having said that, apples don't ...


11

Supposed you are trying to obtain magnesium metal from Epsom salt, $\ce{MgSO4.7 H2O}$: Is is worth the effort? Magnesium metal in the form of chips (particle size 4-30 mesh) in decent purity (99.98%) is available from suppliers such as Sigma-Aldrich for about 150 Euro per kilogram. Can I use electrolysis to generate $\ce{Mg}$ metal? Yes, but you wouldn't ...


10

Good question; unfortunately, no good answers. The problem is that oxygen, pure oxygen, doesn't like to exist as such; it will form a diatom like many gases, but it's very electronegative, and so it will prefer to get the extra electrons from something more willing to donate them, like the iron. This is why "oxidation" has that name; until fluorine was ...


9

Nickel can be extracted directly from its ore by reduction by hydrogen or carbon monoxide at elevated temperature at $600\ \mathrm{^\circ C}$ to $650\ \mathrm{^\circ C}$: $$\ce{NiO + H2 -> Ni + H2O}$$ $$\ce{NiO + CO -> Ni + CO2}$$ Also, it can be extracted by treatment with dilute sulfuric acid following by precipitation: $$\ce{NiO + 2H+ -> Ni^2+...


8

My theory was to use electromagnetic separation, aka the Calutrons used in the Manhattan Project. Fine powder feedstock (check), into an arc discharge to vaporize and ionize (lots of good designs for high volume ion sources out there), electrostatic acceleration, then electromagnets to mass separate. Power with a solar panel array. No moving parts (except ...


8

Generally, extraction of substances with organic solvents is influenced by various factors, among which there are the following: nature of the extracted substance and the extractant (not a variable in your example); temperature; presence of electrolytes in aqueous solutions; $\mathrm{pH}$ of the medium; rate of agitation etc. In your particular case ...


8

The single most important factor is strength ( mechanical compressive ); coal is heated to make coke, the resulting coke is stronger than the original coal. Also, coke helps to make the charge of iron oxides and limestone more porous to permit gas flow up and droplets of liquid iron and slag down. The coke oven heating drives off volatiles from the coal, ...


7

Yes, this is how decaffeinated coffee is made. If I recall correctly, this is done commercially by dissolving the caffeine in dichloromethane (DCM), or more recently in supercritical carbon dioxide. This switch is probably over concerns regarding chronic industrial exposure to DCM, which is mildly toxic. From personal experience, I have extracted caffeine ...


7

Did you notice any change of colour (e.g. to brown) and/or the formation of gunk upon adding the 3M NaOH? I'd assume one would have to boil it, but is the following scenario conceivable under your conditions: alkaline hydrolysis of the acetaminophen (paracetamol) to p-aminophenol aerial oxidation to the corresponding quinone imine partial polymerisation of ...


7

Cyclohexane is used for this extraction because it is nonpolar, as is iodine. A more polar solvent like acetone or ethanol will also extract a whole bunch of other stuff like essential oils, proteins, and other polar compounds. You want Mineral Spirits which you should be able to purchase at any quality hardware store or Walmart. Mineral spirits, mineral ...


7

First, from Boundless.com (Chemical Composition of Urine), "Urine is an aqueous solution of greater than 95% water, with the remaining constituents, in order of decreasing concentration urea 9.3 g/L, chloride 1.87 g/L, sodium 1.17 g/L, potassium 0.750 g/L, creatinine 0.670 g/L and other dissolved ions, inorganic and organic compounds (proteins, hormones, ...


6

7-Hydroxymitragynine The extraction and crystallization of the parent alkaloid, mitragynine, from dried leaves of Mitragyna speciosa (Kratom), has been described in great detail by A. H. Beckett, E. J. Shellard and A. N. Tackie in Planta Med., 1965, 13, 241-246 (DOI). (Interestingly, the procedure also furnished speciofoline, a spiroindolo indolizidine ...


6

Molar concentration can be expressed via mass $m$ and volume $V$ all right: $$C_i = \frac{n_i}{V_i} = \frac{m_i}{M_iV_i}$$ Analyte doesn't change during the extraction and its molar mass $M$ remains the same $(M_i = \text{const})$ so the distribution coefficient $D$ can be rewritten as such: $$D = \frac{C_\mathrm{s}}{C_\mathrm{w}} = \frac{m_\mathrm{s}V_\...


5

Alcoholic solution of iodine What firstly comes to mind is that you meant "iodine tincture". This question must have been frequently asked, since answers are available out there with different degrees of reliability. You must first follow the safety instructions: Do your experiment somewhere that the noxious fumes won't be able to do harm to anyone. It's ...


5

The standard process for electrolysing $\ce{Al2O3}$ to $\ce{Al}$ should work fine on the moon. Note that on Earth, a consumable carbon anode is used to reduce the voltage required, giving the reaction (Hall–Héroult process) $$\ce{Al2O3 + 1.5C → 2 Al + 1.5 CO2}$$ An alternative, non-consumable anode would be used on the moon, to avoid the need for anode ...


5

I don't think this is going to be a good idea. Notice that the Al and O existing in the Moon's soil are not there are free elements, but are tightly bound in minerals. On Earth, Al is extracted from bauxite - this is naturally occurring Al2O3. This extraction process is extremely energy intensive. In fact, they transport the bauxite mined elsewhere to ...


5

Ionic liquid refining of aluminum is a promising solution which uses 3 kWh of electricity per kg instead of around 15 kWh for existing methods.


5

First thing, you should NEVER perform any heated reaction with a stoppered condenser. You shouldn't even be allowed to work independently in the lab if this rule is not coming automatic to you. I am not sure what you mean by a special condenser being used in Soxhlet extractions. You can use any condenser that fits. Since you don't do a distillation you can ...


5

The answer appears to be forthcoming in the wikipedia article on silicon monoxide and references therein — to quote: $\ce{(SiO)_{n}}$ irreversibly disproportionates into $\ce{SiO2}$ and $\ce{Si}$ in a few hours between 400 and 800 °C and very rapidly between 1000 and 1440 °C, although the reaction does not go to completion. The article implies that $\ce{(...


5

Here's what I suggest: Mash up the pills in a mortar Dissolve the powder in cold distilled water, use a beaker Shake well Put the beaker in a freezer and wait until right before the water freezes to remove it Carefully decant the solution Check what's left both in the water and the powder residue I don't know exactly how much water is optimal for the ...


5

I suggest to use a 1:1 mixture of dichloromethane and 0.2 M NaOH at room temperature. The protocol was described by Tetsuo Onami and Hitoshi Kanazawa in J. Chem. Educ, 1996, 73, 556-557. The authors mention that only trace amounts of caffeine are extracted from tea leaves with dichloromethane alone. They reason that due to the hight amount of tannines in ...


5

Yes, ethyl acetate can be used to isolate cinnamaldehyde from cinnamon oil, though there are better non-haloalkane options. In a study that aimed to optimize the extraction of cinnamaldehyde from cinnamon powder, it was found that from methanol, ethanol, ethyl acetate, and water, methanol was the most efficient. The exact method used in the study was: ...


5

Two possibilities: Distillation: Sulfur has the comparatively low boiling point of 718 K ​(445 °C). Heating in apparatus not affected by sulfur (which leaves out iron) will leave behind the carbon. This is, after all, how sulfur winds up at volcanic vents, where it is harvested. You might even create a retort out of concrete, which would simulate volcanic ...


5

This method works because one of the reaction products, $\ce{CO}$, is gaseous (at the stated reaction temperature) and is continually removed. Following Le Chatelier's Principle, the equilibrium: $$\ce{ZnO(s) + C(s) <=> Zn(l) + CO(g)}$$ is pushed to the right and the reaction proceeds. There are numerous of these reactions where Ellingham data don't ...


5

Casein is a mixture of phosphoproteins found in milk that accounts for approximately 80% of the total protein content of cow milk (cow milk contains 3.3% total protein). Hence, it is easy to prepare casein as a pure protein from cow milk. Casein exists in milk as the water soluble calcium salt of a phosphoprotein (UC, Davis). Thus, it is usually prepared ...


5

The key is that water is the great equalizer and mediator. Let's deal with weak and strong base first: You are right that a sufficient quantity of a strong base would have the same effect. In this particular case, the hydrogencarbonate will separate into $\ce{CO2}$ and water on protonation and we can assume that most of the carbon dioxide will bubble out. So ...


4

The best option would be an organic extraction with dichloromethane. All the other ingredients (except possibly D&C yellow #10 aluminum lake) will be insoluble and therefore unaffected. Filter, let the dichloromethane evaporate and you should have your caffeine. EDIT: I agree with J M. This caffeine IS NOT EDIBLE. You could easily become intoxicated by ...


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