9 votes
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Extracting urea from urine

First, from Boundless.com (Chemical Composition of Urine), "Urine is an aqueous solution of greater than 95% water, with the remaining constituents, in order of decreasing concentration urea 9.3 g/L, ...
Ben Welborn's user avatar
  • 1,576
9 votes

How to extract pure potassium carbonate from ash?

Historically speaking, potassium derives from pot ash and now potash when -- if there were no geologic sources of $\ce{K2CO3}$ -- woods were burnt in a pot. The addition of water will dissolve $\ce{...
Buttonwood's user avatar
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8 votes
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Increasing partition coefficient in an extraction

Generally, extraction of substances with organic solvents is influenced by various factors, among which there are the following: nature of the extracted substance and the extractant (not a variable ...
andselisk's user avatar
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8 votes
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Why do we use coke instead of coal in order to reduce FeO as basic reaction in ironmaking process?

The single most important factor is strength ( mechanical compressive ); coal is heated to make coke, the resulting coke is stronger than the original coal. Also, coke helps to make the charge of iron ...
blacksmith37's user avatar
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8 votes

How to extract pure potassium carbonate from ash?

The composition of the wood ashes varies with the nature and the origin of the wood. In the average, it is a mixture of $40$ % - $70$ % $\ce{CaCO3}$, $5$% - $10$% $\ce{MgCO3}$, $5$% - $10$% $\ce{K2CO3}...
Maurice's user avatar
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8 votes

Looking for caffeine partition coefficients

Dichloromethane/ethyl acetate are not organic solvents for which the partition of an organic compound between water and an organic solvent are often recorded. More frequently these partitions are ...
Buttonwood's user avatar
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7 votes
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Distribution coeffecient without concentrations

Molar concentration can be expressed via mass $m$ and volume $V$ all right: $$C_i = \frac{n_i}{V_i} = \frac{m_i}{M_iV_i}$$ Analyte doesn't change during the extraction and its molar mass $M$ remains ...
andselisk's user avatar
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7 votes

Condenser shooting out hexane in a soxhlet extraction

Heating without boiling chips or stirring will cause vapor to burst. Your condenser is not the efficient type either. Suggestion: add boiling chips (after it is cooled down); change a more efficient ...
Coconut's user avatar
  • 2,098
6 votes

How to extract thymol from oregano leaves?

This sounds like a nice project and I'm tempted to answer in too much detail, but since this is homework […]. Here are some hints: Find information about thymol. This is crucial! What is the ...
Klaus-Dieter Warzecha's user avatar
6 votes

General Alkaloid Extraction Process

7-Hydroxymitragynine The extraction and crystallization of the parent alkaloid, mitragynine, from dried leaves of Mitragyna speciosa (Kratom), has been described in great detail by A. H. Beckett, E. ...
Klaus-Dieter Warzecha's user avatar
6 votes
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Why is ZnO reduced in this reaction?

This method works because one of the reaction products, $\ce{CO}$, is gaseous (at the stated reaction temperature) and is continually removed. Following Le Chatelier's Principle, the equilibrium: $$\...
Gert's user avatar
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6 votes
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How can I measure the amount of quinine in a home-made tonic water?

Without standard solutions and a fluorimeter, you can do a side-by-side comparison using a commercial tonic water and your solution. I just prevailed in getting a poor photograph of the beautiful blue ...
Ed V's user avatar
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5 votes
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Liquid-liquid caffeine extraction

I suggest to use a 1:1 mixture of dichloromethane and 0.2 M NaOH at room temperature. The protocol was described by Tetsuo Onami and Hitoshi Kanazawa in J. Chem. Educ, 1996, 73, 556-557. The authors ...
Klaus-Dieter Warzecha's user avatar
5 votes
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Can ethyl acetate isolate cinnamaldehyde from cinnamon oil?

Yes, ethyl acetate can be used to isolate cinnamaldehyde from cinnamon oil, though there are better non-haloalkane options. In a study that aimed to optimize the extraction of cinnamaldehyde from ...
ringo's user avatar
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5 votes
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How to separate sulfur and carbon powders?

Two possibilities: Distillation: Sulfur has the comparatively low boiling point of 718 K ​(445 °C). Heating in apparatus not affected by sulfur (which leaves out iron) will leave behind the carbon. ...
DrMoishe Pippik's user avatar
5 votes
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Techniques to extract lipids

Casein is a mixture of phosphoproteins found in milk that accounts for approximately 80% of the total protein content of cow milk (cow milk contains 3.3% total protein). Hence, it is easy to prepare ...
Mathew Mahindaratne's user avatar
5 votes
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Why is a weak base more able to deprotonate a strong acid than a weak acid?

The key is that water is the great equalizer and mediator. Let's deal with weak and strong base first: You are right that a sufficient quantity of a strong base would have the same effect. In this ...
TAR86's user avatar
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5 votes
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How to remove sugar from juice

A blueberry contains ~85% water, 5% glucose, and 5% fructose (and it is generally considered a low glycemic index food, see e.g. this site). The solubility of fructose in water is extremely high (...
Buck Thorn's user avatar
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5 votes

Why n-alkanes can be found in organic solvent extract of rubber?

Although natural rubber and synthetic rubber display a poor chemical resistance to alkanes among others, they do not dissolve in alkanes. Your GC/MS traces (I believe that so because of alkane/alkene ...
Mathew Mahindaratne's user avatar
5 votes

How to extract pure potassium carbonate from ash?

It seems that by partial crystalization, it can be somewhat purified as the most soluble salt, but cannot be easily purified to high purity degree. It may be andvantageous to crystalized near water ...
Poutnik's user avatar
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5 votes

Condenser shooting out hexane in a soxhlet extraction

As noted above by matt_black (eagle eye!) the female joint on the top of Soxhlet is broken. That joint most be replaced ASAP by a qualified glassblower. Otherwise, you can either injure yourself when ...
Naug Irvin's user avatar
5 votes

Looking for caffeine partition coefficients

In the answer elsewhere, Buttonwood has said what OP needs to know about partition coefficients and why they are not recorded for variety of organic solvents. Yet, I found these data (at $\pu{20 ^\...
Mathew Mahindaratne's user avatar
4 votes

What is ideal water hardness for brewing coffee?

According to a discussion I had on this matter with a friend in the coffee processing industry, you should definitely consider yourself lucky for your naturally hard water. We live in a region with ...
airhuff's user avatar
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4 votes

Separating boric acid from sodium chloride

Here is a potential solution that shouldn't even require heating. Note that I have not tried this myself. Boric acid is soluble in lower alcohols like ethyl alcohol and isopropyl alcohol. The ...
airhuff's user avatar
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4 votes
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Phosphate extraction from sewage

The idea has been proposed by several journal articles and Wikipedia suggests that it is being done already. In "Phosphate fertilizer from sewage sludge ash (SSA)", Franz proposes a method ...
CoffeeIsLife's user avatar
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4 votes

Will piperine endure heating for several days of soxhlet extractions?

So, I promised to answer this question based on my experiences if I'd remember. And I did. Here we go: I did three soxhlet extractions, each with 175 grams of black peppercorns. The first ...
user62840's user avatar
  • 101
4 votes

3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA) basic extraction

MDA is an alkaloid, i.e., basic. When you talk about its $\mathrm{p}K_\mathrm{a}$ value, you're really talking about the $\mathrm{p}K_\mathrm{a}$ of the protonated ammonium ion. The ammonium ion is ...
Zhe's user avatar
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4 votes
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Rule of Thumb for separatory funnel volumes

If a general rule must be given than the volume of the separatory funnel is mostly dictated by that of the liquid to be treated. Indeed is better to extract the product by repeating several steps ...
Alchimista's user avatar
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4 votes

Are glycosides more soluble in dichloromethane than in water?

Anybody with glycoside isolation from bio-matrices would tell you that your plan is not going to work. Amygdalin is classified as a cyanogenic glycoside because it contains nitrile moiety. It is ...
Mathew Mahindaratne's user avatar
4 votes
Accepted

Can aniline be made with the method described in Dr Stone?

Believe it or not, aniline was actually isolated from coal tar way back in 1834. A chemist called Friedlieb Runge isolated aniline along with phenol from coal tar. He discovered that aniline produced ...
Nilay Ghosh's user avatar
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