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Bleach, especially employed in laundry applications, may have, in addition to the active ingredient sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), an equal concentration of NaCl (as it is prepared from the action of Cl2 on NaOH) and at times, an alkaline, like lye (NaOH) or Washing Soda (sodium carbonate, Na2CO3). The latter can cause skin rashes and irritation (and will be ...


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Is there a temperature dependant factor in the soap's cleansing mechanism? Yes, because hydrophilic-hydrophobic interactions are always driven by entropy. Entropy contributes to Gibbs Energy which is the final quantity determining whether a reaction takes place or not (or in which direction it takes place for that matter). But your question implies other ...


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Bleach is usually a mixed solution of sodium hypochlorite NaClO and a lot of sodium chloride NaCl. NaClO is decomposed when dry. So your couch is probably soaked in salt (NaCl). It may produce an uncomfortable feeling.


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From a purely standard chemistry perspective, the longer one allows a potentially slow reaction (attack of the outer membranes, for example) to occur, I would expect better results. Photochemistry is also an option to consider, which may be catalytic with other treatments. In particular, explore safe natural light sun bulbs (I would select the higher output,...


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Ascorbic acid in solid crystallic form is much less sensitive to light and oxidation, compared to its solutions ( especially if in ascobate form ). Another lucky consequence is only the outer layer has been exposed to the light, the inner bag content is not disturbed. It is hard to quantify the impact. Empirical evaluation could be if it changed the colour ...


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I am sorry to have entered this discussion so late. Flammable means how easy it is to set on fire. Volatile means how quickly it evaporates. It is easy to think of liquids that are both flammable and volatile: ethyl ether, pentane, gasoline, etc. Some liquids are volatile but NOT flammable. They include tetrachloroethylene, chloroform, hexafluoroisopropanol ...


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UVC is very harmful to people and requires specialist equipment to create and use safely You are not going to be able to create or use lamps that emit 222nM light without specialist equipment, and even if you could it would almost certainly not be safe. Far UV lamps are widely commercially available for germicidal applications and these usually use mercury ...


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Interesting and per your cited source, to quote: [...] far-UVC light generated by filtered excimer lamps emitting in the 207 to 222 nm wavelength range, efficiently inactivates drug-resistant bacteria, without apparent harm to exposed mammalian skin 13,14,15. Also, more details: Far-UVC lamps We used a bank of three excimer lamps containing a Kr-Cl ...


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No, it is not a good disinfectant. To quote from the CDC on chemical disinfectants 'Guideline for Disinfection and Sterilization in Healthcare Facilities (2008)' available here: Methyl alcohol (methanol) has the weakest bactericidal action of the alcohols and thus seldom is used in healthcare 488.


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The chemistry is complex given the organic content of sea water and the influence of sunlight. For example, here is an article detailing the influence of sunlight on oceans containing dissolved organic matter, to quote: Solar radiation mineralizes dissolved organic matter (DOM) to dissolved inorganic carbon through photochemical reactions (DIC ...


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I use microcrystalline wax all the time but mine is now soft and tacky and very bendable when I pour sheet wax. However, with you issue, it is best not to BEND the wax while it is still warm, even though this is tempting, it will break and tear. It is best once you have your form or sheet, to leave the wax go completely cold before attempting to twist it ...


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I'll do the "full problem". First the volume of a liquid typical increases with a rise in temperature. Since no temperature was specified, one must be assumed. The 88th CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics gives 1.0361 g/cu cm at 20 °C. So to work the problem you must assume: (1) The density of 99.8% propylene glycol is 1.0361 g/ml @ 20 °C Note: For a ...


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In Wikipedia, propylene glycol has a density $1.04$. So $5$ litre propylene glycol weighs $5200$ g, and contains $5200·0.998 = 5190$ g propylene glycol.


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You may find information from the US Federal government relating to this questions at the following sites: https://www.epa.gov/hwgenerators/steps-complying-regulations-hazardous-waste https://www.epa.gov/rcra/resource-conservation-and-recovery-act-rcra-regulations Furthermore, your organization (theoretically) has a local waste discharge permit that it must ...


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