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Here is the usual citation for the toxic products and symptoms created upon mixing NH3 and NaOCl (not in lab conditions, which involves employing very cold dilute aqueous solutions): When bleach is mixed with ammonia, toxic gases called chloramines are produced. Exposure to chloramine gases can cause the following symptoms: Coughing. Nausea. ...


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At equilibrium, the concentration of CO2 in the water will not equal the concentration of CO2 in the air. Instead, at equilibrium, their chemical potentials will be equal. At room temperature, CO2 likes being in a gaseous state more than in a aqueous state. Consequently, when their chemical potentials are equal, the concentration of CO2 in the water will ...


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I am going the other way: I have a 125 gal with only 3 average size tropicals and numerous plants. I use aeration to get CO2 from the atmosphere into the water . As you said ; aeration promotes equilibrium between gases in the atmosphere and gases dissolved in the water.


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A precise answer to your question is : Yes. Adding surface agitation, or aeration to an aquarium with high levels of $CO_2$, causes the $CO_2$ to dissipate from the water.


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Some gases can displace dissolved air by a simple process of bubbling. The formal wording for it is "sparging" For example, it was a standard practice to bubble helium in organic solvents to remove dissolve air. Similarly, if you sparge $\ce{N2}$ for a long time in water, you will displace oxygen and dissolved air from water. I feel that exposing water to ...


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It depends if the substance in bulk is transparent, highly reflective (metallic) or highly absorptive. Carbon in its graphite allotrope is highly absorptive, and even finely divided is still black. Carbon as diamond is transparent. Crushed diamonds are white -- look at a diamond file or abrasive disk. What happens is that incident light is scattered as it ...


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If you want to understand the reaction of $NaOH$ on Aluminium, you may describe it this way. First, the aluminium reacts spontaneously with water, like sodium or calcium, producing gaseous Hydrogen $H_2$ and an metallic oxide or hydroxide. With sodium or calcium, the hydroxide produced by this reaction quits the metal surface, and get dissolved, leaving a ...


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A 70% “rubbing” alcohol solution will kill those pesky bacterium usually in ten seconds or less. It will also kill a host of viruses, but not all of them. For your common household disinfecting, a 70% solution will do the trick. Especially for e. Coli, salmonella, staph, and a few others that would be risk bacterium when preparing poultry, etc. A final ...


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Sodium acetate melts at 78°C, If you heat it to 80°C with one or two drops of water, you obtain a saturated solution of sodium acetate. You may cool it down, and you obtain a supersaturated solution at room temperature. The solution should crystallize, but it does not, because no molecule feels more inclined than the next one to start the first crystal. For ...


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The question is,why, if we supersaturate solutions of sodium thiosulphate, sodium sulphate or sodium acetate, why we have to use the crystal of respective salt to start the rapid crystallization ? We need not to. It is just the most natural and the most reliable way to set the crystallization centre. Similar effect is achieved in sealed pocked heaters by ...


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There are many sorts of bronze. The most widely known is an alloy copper $\ce{Cu}$ and tin $\ce{Sn}$. When dissolved in nitric acid $\ce{HNO3}$, copper is oxidized into a blue solution containing $\ce{Cu^2+}$ ion. Metallic tin $\ce{Sn}$ is not dissolved. It is transformed into an insoluble and colorless oxide $\ce{SnO2}$ which often makes a gel difficult to ...


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Until perhaps the 1980s printed newspapers used lead type which was set in sheets -- some lead would get onto the paper this way while the ink itself while perhaps toxic did not contain lead. However, the colored comics in the USA used lead in the ink itself. I think lead has been eliminated from newspapers since that time in the USA; I don't know about ...


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Double displacement reactions involve ionic compounds, i.e. salts formed from positive cations and negative anions. Consider the following setup, $$\ce{\color{blue}{A^{+}}\color{red}{B^{-}} + \color{blue}{C^{+}}\color{red}{D^{-}} -> \color{blue}{A^{+}}\color{red}{D^{-}} + \color{blue}{C^{+}}\color{red}{B^{-}}}$$ where the cations are indicated in blue and ...


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Usually a colored stuff absorbs a color, which helps its electrons to go to an excited state. Once excited, the atom or the molecule transfers this energy to the vibrations and rotations of the molecule : the agitation increases, and so the temperature. The energy may also be reemitted in light after the absorption process. This happens with fluorescent or ...


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