6

At very dilute concentrations, the solvating power of water overcomes the natural tendency of surfactant molecules to agglomerate into a separate phase. The shear numerical excess of water molecules just about totally dissociates the bulk surfactant and dissolves it as separate molecules. So a mixture of surfactant and water can be a true solution - clear ...


4

Most likely this was an artificial "lake" sample and someone gave you distilled water instead. Making artificial water samples is not an unusual practice in teaching laboratories. Natural water cannot have zero concentration of chloride ion. Sodium and chloride ions are very common contaminants even in pure reagents. There is no "zero" ...


3

If the gases in a mixture are ideal then their diffusion is independent*. The relationship described by Graham's law is transitive, therefore the relative effusion rate of multiple substances with respect to a reference substance also provides a ranking of their relative diffusion coefficients (an ordered list). *Outside of condensed or supercritical phases ...


3

If you know the decay constant ($\lambda$), you use: $$t_{1/2} = \frac{\ln 2}{\lambda}$$ The unit of $\lambda$ is $\pu{s-1}, \pu{min-1}, \pu{h-1}, \pu{d-1},$ or $\pu{a-1}$, while that of $\ln 2$ is unitless. Consequently, $t_{1/2}$ can be calculated as $\pu{s}, \pu{min}, \pu{h}, \pu{d},$ or $\pu{a}$, respectively. Since you have $\lambda$ in $\pu{min-1}$, ...


3

People turn apple cider all the way to apple cider vinegar, so during the process, there will be a time when the amount and ratio of ethanol and acetic acid are optimally balanced for making ethyl acetate - but it doesn't seem to happen. However, given enough time (and oxygen and bacteria), maybe different things happen. Interesting that the expired cider ...


2

Question 1: Carbomer Question 2: Not sure about the question, but anyway. Sure you can create a spray (theoretically), but the process is really hard (please, do not make it at your house) because you need a propellant. By the way, such a high concentration of Parfum. Question 3: Part1: According to your observations, in my own opinion, the concentration of ...


2

Activated carbon is called "activated" when its grains contain a large amount of large cavities. These cavities are big enough to hold large molecules of undesired substances (oils, smokes) which are present in the air. Only small molecules like oxygen and nitrogen from the air can go through without being retained. So the activated carbon removes ...


1

I dont think hydrogenation is at play in here. More likely you just get chunks of solid in liquid, thus sludge. Otherwise you would get more smooth material. Similar processes that can make more solid-like material are gellatine and agar-agar, that make gel that holds everything, emulgators like egg that help to hold different materials together by making ...


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