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Below a more general approach. Suppose that we have two weak acids $\ce{HA}$ and $\ce{HB}$. The initial concentrations are $C^0_\ce{HA}$ and $C^0_\ce{HB}$, and their constants are ${K_\ce{a}}_\ce{(HA)}$ and ${K_\ce{a}}_\ce{(HB)}$. Suppose yet that volumes, $V_\ce{HA}$ and $V_\ce{HB}$, are additives. So we have: Reactions $$\ce{HA + H2O <=> H3O+ + A-}...


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"Shifting" an equilibrium Unfortunately for learners of chemistry, statements like "the equilibrium shifts to the right" are quite common jargon. What is meant by this, speaking in more accurate technical terms, is the following: A reaction had reached equilibrium (net reaction is zero), and then some change occurred so that it was no longer in equilibrium....


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I can't understand why the air (and its pressure) doesn't work like a piston, making sure no water is in gas state at 1 atm It is because water vapor and air mix. If you place a thin foil on the water surface (e.g. saran wrap), the air will work like a piston, pushing on the foil, which pushes on the liquid water and on any molecule that tries to escape. ...


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What I think: A macroscopic chaotic system is a system whose "components" influence each other, and the macroscopic outcome depends on the status of the components. This happens for the two-arms pendulum, for air particles in cigarette smoke, and for particles in wind. Each microscopic variation can be propagated between particles, and the final status of ...


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A homogeneous reaction mixture can hardly show macroscopical chaotic behaviour. Well known cyclic counterexamples exist, and practically any reaction which proceeds faster than diffusion or mechanical mixing can homogenise it again (e.g. any reaction that generates a lot of heat!) is liable to show some intermediate chaotic concentration gradients. Its ...


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