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You expect ionization energies to increase as you remove more electrons from an atom, because the charge of the nucleus remains the same (and therefore its attraction to the remaining electrons) but repulsion from other electrons is reduced with removal of each additional electron. However, in addition to this simple intuitive trend, quantum mechanics throws ...


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Are you on ionization energy values? In general, they are much higher than that! To help you, we see that the first ionization energies are "relatively" weak, which indicates that it is rather easy to tear an electron from the atom. On the other hand, for the 5th, the value being much higher, this therefore means that you really have to go there to ...


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Electronegativity is a rather slippery thing, really. Roughly speaking, it depends on both electron affinity (the tendency to take on a negative charge) and ionization enthalpy (the tendency not to assume a positive charge). Chlorine has the highest electron affinity among halogens, true; but fluorine has a much higher ionization energy, a difference of ...


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Fluorine is a rather small atom. The incoming electron is put into a region of space already crowded with electrons. So there is a significant amount of repulsion, which lessens the attraction the incoming electron feels, and so lessens the electron affinity. A similar reversal happens between Oxygen and Sulfur. The firs electron affinity of oxygen (-$142 kJ/...


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I will use electron gain enthalpy(ega) to explain this. ega becomes less negative down a group in general. However, adding an electron to 2p orbital leads to greater repulsion than adding an electron to 3 p orbital and this, chlorine has the highest ega(the magnitude) and hence, the highest electron affinity.


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