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The most common way to apply metals by electrodeposition to nonconductive materials is to apply a "strike" of underlying metal, usually nickel or copper, via a method like electroless plating. In electroless, the electrons for the reduction of the metal ions to the zero-valent state are supplied by a reducing agent in solution: \begin{align} \ce{Red &... 8 Dip the wood in a solution of ascorbic acid (Vitamin C; orange juice will do) and soap and allow it to soak. Soaking time will vary by wood variant. then dip the wood in a solution of copper sulfate or another copper salt and soap. The ascorbic acid will reduce the copper, creating a conductive coating. This may need to be repeated to achieve a continuous ... 8 ringo makes good points in his answer. Additionally, though, the increased temperature enhances mass transfer of ions to/from the electrode surfaces by at least two mechanisms: Higher temperature results in lower electrolyte viscosity, leading to a thinner fluid dynamic boundary layer and concomitant greater mass transfer to/from the electrode surfaces. ... 7 There are a couple factors here: What you are using for an anode is probably the most important. If you’re not using copper, you’re depleting your copper sulfate electrolyte of copper ions. Use a copper anode and you’ll be continuously replenishing your electrolyte with copper ions. Concentration of your electrolyte is another factor. If the electrolyte is ... 7 Roughen the deposition surface, perhaps by buffing with very coarse sandpaper or an abrasive scrub pad or similar. If the surface isn't rough enough, the deposited coating has nothing to mechanically "grab onto" and it can be peeled off just as you've observed. With a sufficiently rough surface, the deposition penetrates into the nooks and crannies of the ... 7 The reasoning here is two-fold. The solubility of most electrolytes increases with temperature, and water's ionization constant also increases with temperature. On the whole this means more ions, and thereby better conductivity. 5 When you apply the required voltage for the desired cell, then your desired product is being produced, but if you provide an overpotential then you forced the other reaction to also occur(the undesired one). For eg. If in a reaction two species can be oxidized then, of the required potential is applied then you will get the required product but if an over ... 4 There are two types of control of what reaction may occur: thermodynamic control and kinetic control. Thermodynamic control dominates in near-equilibrium conditions, which in case of electroplating means small voltages and relatively high concentrations. When applying high voltage, metal ions in near-electrode space are quickly exhausted and we move from ... 4 Before you start with your experiments, you might want to read about the concept of a standard electrode potential and have a look at some data, particulary for hydrogen, sodium and chlorine. Can I electrolyze an aqueous solution of sodium chloride? Can I produce sodium metal by electrolysis of sodium chloride? In summary, I suggest that you rethink your ... 4 No ! It is not possible to deposit aluminum by electrolysis of a water solution. It may be done in a solution of \ce{AlCl3} in an organic solvent like toluene, but not in water. And even in toluene, the conductivity is low. Metallic aluminum reacts with water, when this metal is not protected by an outer layer of aluminum oxide \ce{Al2O3} as it is as ... 3 I haven't found much in literature about this process, we can try to find the solution reasoning, but some experiments should helpful. What is being deposited? If he connects the positive terminal to the object it means that the object is the anode. So something is reduced on the anode. Copper(II) oxide quite common oxide used for balckening. How can we ... 3 In short, yes, it is possible to electroplate alloys, but it isn't as simple as just mixing the ions you want in the ratio you want. In the simplest approximation, the alloy deposition would behave as two simultaneous, separate depositions at the same voltage and the composition could be controlled by changing the voltage, assuming each component has a ... 3 Using Marble's Reagent to etch stainless steel, the wood stirrer got coated with copper. Marble's is \ce{CuSO4}, \ce{HCl} and water, but I think I added extra \ce{CuSO4}. This isn't technically electroplating, though. 3 There are a few key factors that I expect are contributing here: \ce{CuSO4} concentration – If your \left[\ce{Cu^2+}\!\right] in solution is low, then that will disfavor deposition, as permeakra noted in a comment. You want at least 25 to 100~\mathrm{g\over L} of copper in the electrolyte. Cell voltage – 15~\mathrm V is an exorbitantly high ... 3 Hydroxide is bad for this process. You will have additional problems if hydroxide anion is present. Silver cation reacts with hydroxide anion to form silver hydroxide, which spontaneously decomposes into silver oxide:\begin{aligned}\ce{Ag+ + OH-}&\ce{ -> AgOH}\\ \ce{2AgOH}&\ce{ -> H2O +Ag2O}\end{aligned}$$In addition to shutting down the ... 3 There are two issues here: First, you will be oxidizing water. You would end up making oxygen in most of those cases, before oxidizing your metal and making the cation you need. Second, even in cases where your metal will oxidize before water, the concentration of the metal cation in the solution will be low and variable. This will create problems with ... 3 It really doesn't matter for your purposes: most commercial "copper sulfate" is actually copper sulfate pentahydrate (copper sulfate plus five molecules of water). Pure (anhydrous, i.e. without water) copper sulfate absorbs water from air to become the pentahydrate, so it's easier to ship the stable pentahydrate. You're paying for the extra mass of the ... 2 Copper (II) sulphate pentahydrate, \ce{CuSO4.5H2O}, indicates copper (II) sulphate in crystalline form (for ease you can say copper (II) sulphate whose crystals contain water). Copper (II) sulphate, \ce{CuSO4}, indicates anhydrous copper (II) sulphate (copper sulphate which has lost its water molecules). The difference is that \ce{CuSO4.5H2O} has a ... 2 I think the easiest way is to sputter coat the bars, if you can access one. One that can rotate your bars such that the rotation is vertical to the direction of sputtering would be the best. If not, switch sides manually. Depends on the composition of your bars, you might want to coat something else before coating zinc. A wild guess: nickel. I suggest so ... 2 There are few things that you can improve. First, beads are forming because your copper anodes are not pure copper. Beads are forming around impurities. You can try to remove (filter) impurities by firmly wrapping anodes in paper tissue or better with water filtration polypropylene felt filter so only Cu ions can pass into solution. You can after that ... 2 It might be possible to evaporate the copper in a vacuum so that it is deposited on the wood. No electric conductivity required. Here is an example using gold. YouTube: Gold & Casio Watch - Periodic Table of Videos And a search found this random document about it random document about vacuum evaporation 2 No ! There are no method for plating aluminum. Thousands of people have tried. In vain. It is impossible to prevent the formation of a thin layer of aluminum oxide which is waterproof at the surface of the metal. The only way of preventing it is to dip a piece of aluminum in a solution of mercuric chloride. This produces a reaction$$\ce{2 Al + 3 HgCl2 -> ...

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Just remember two major rules in electrolytic electrochemistry: If you fix voltage, current cannot be controlled. This is called constant potential electrolysis If you fix the current, voltage cannot be controlled. This is called constant current electrolysis Now your electrolysis cell has resistance: (i) It will depend on electrolytes (ii) Surface area ...

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Yes, it is possible to electrodeposit gallium. The difficulties are: efficiency due to the need for low electrodeposition potentials, formation of extremely fine hydrogen bubbles which spoils the surface finish, the requirement to use extremely low temperatures and the melting/alloying of gallium with the metal it's plated on, and poor repeatability of the ...

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Maybe these links would help: US3046204A - Method for making diamond tools - Google Patents https://patents.google.com › patent The Basics: Electroplating & Vacuum Brazing - Diamond ... https://www.dpcanada.com › articles › pl... US4079552A - Diamond bonding process - Google Patents https://www.google.com › patents https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/...

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I never saw an explanation, only that ( historically) that is the way that works. I expect it has something related to getting a good bond . Although the nickle makes the substrate ( copper) "silver" color so the silver layer does not need to be as thick. Both the copper and nickle also provide corrosion protection to the steel. Chromium plating is done the ...

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I have read that the nickel plating helps removing oxide layers when working with stainless steel which is beneficial for the silver plating process. Sadly I do not know why the copper is used but I suspect the context could explain the copper.

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Copper acetate can be used, at least for a thin layer, and it can be made with chemicals found at home. To get a bright copper coat, extra acid (vinegar, 5% acetic acid, in this case) or gelatin can be added. That said, if the plating is for through-hole continuity, it might be simpler and cheaper to use a solderable conductive ink.

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A reaction between copper metal and hydrochloric acid would go something like this: $$\ce{Cu + 2HCl -> CuCl2 + H2}$$ ...which we can write as: $$\ce{Cu + 2H+ -> Cu^2+ + H2}$$ If we break this up into half reactions, we get: $$\ce{Cu -> 2e- + Cu} ~~~E°=-0.34~V$$ $$\ce{2H+ + 2e- -> H2} ~~~E°=0.00 ~V$$ If we add the voltages together, we get the ...

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The formula calls for nickel sulfate; is it possible to simply add the powdered sulfur to the solution, or do I have to use a different process to synthesize the nickel sulfate? This will not work. Sulfur ($\ce{S}$) and sulfate ($\ce{SO4^{2-}}$) are two pairs of shoes. The oxidation state is different and there is no way that sulfur powder will turn into ...

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