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2

Here's what I believe they're trying to say. First, note that the discussion is mostly limited to high spin complexes (3 unpaired electrons out of the 7 d electrons), so the figure you reproduced is only representative of high spin states. Second, recall that when D > 0 (ie left side of figure), the five d orbital energy levels split so that we have three ...


1

I'm not aware of the Russell–Saunders effect, but the Russell–Saunders coupling scheme is definitely a thing. As you noted, the Wikipedia page on "spin-orbit interaction" doesn't talk about it, but a different Wikipedia page does, and basically tells you the same thing as I will. The answer is... yes and no. The word "coupling" refers to ...


5

Very nice question. I also had the same question. These orbitals are nothing more than functions (wavefunctions). They are solutions to Schrodinger's equation, a second order differential equation. So you solve the equation and the solutions you get are determined by $4$ numbers also called quantum numbers $n, l, m_l, m_s$. A shell consists of all orbitals ...


4

If this is a serious question and you wish to get a conceptual grasp of it, there is a lovely thin book called "Hydrogen" by Rigden (from Harvard). It walks you through the conceptual development. Briefly, the need of better and better model of hydrogen atom arose because of the need to completely rationalize the experimental hydrogen spectrum. By ...


0

As chemists, we are typically more directly concerned with the effective nuclear charge on outer electrons than inner electrons, because it's only the outer electrons that interact with other atoms and thus determine an atom's chemical properties. [Though the effective nuclear charge on inner electrons will affect their radial probability distributions and ...


15

This is an example of terminology which should be taken with a grain of salt. The term "effective nuclear charge" is often casually symbolized with $Z_\mathrm{eff}.$ This is a universally accepted simplification, but you should keep in mind that the effective nuclear charge is, strictly speaking, $Z_\mathrm{eff}e,$ where $e$ is the elementary ...


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