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6

Essentially, this derives from Dirac’s relativistic quantum mechanics. In nonrelativistic quantum mechanics—the Schrödinger equation that you are probably highly familiar with—p orbitals are triply degenerate while d orbitals are 5-way degenerate. However, nonrelativistic quantum mechanics does not include the electronic property known as spin unless it is ...


0

The energy here is a kind of potential energy. By very nature, it always tries to stay minimum in magnitude, so it is said to have a "potential" to change its energy into other form of energy. Like stretch bow's potential energy change into (and transferred to) arrow's kinetic energy. in case of electron jumps, the energy transformed is in the form light.


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When we talk about exchanging electron $i$ with electron $j$, we are actually changing the wavefunction according to $$\Psi(..., x_i, ..., x_j, ...) \to \Psi(..., x_j, ..., x_i, ...).$$ The operation is taken by the parity operator $P$. Applying it twice would return the wavefunction to its original form. So the following eigenvalue equation is satisfied $...


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We should be able to answer questions at the level of the questioner. A beta particle is described as an electron with a lot of energy. We generally use this term to describe electrons emitted by a nuclear transformation. Different atoms emit electrons with different energy: the energy of the electrons emitted by tritium are so low (5.7 keV) that it is ...


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Danger is a relative term. In general for beta-emitters it's not dangerous to be in the same room. Even a relatively hard beta, like P32 (around 1.7 million electron volts) will not penetrate its container. If ingested and absorbed into the body, however, the beta-emitter will be in close proximity to the other molecules of the body. So its energy can ...


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Electrons don't have a well-defined orbital radius even in a hydrogen atom An electron "orbiting" in a hydrogen atom does not have a well-defined position or even just a well-defined radius just because it has a well-defined energy. The orbital is more like a 3D probability density function covering a cloudy space of a defined shape (spherical in the case ...


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