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2017-10-27 Update [NOTE: My earlier notation-focused answer, unchanged, is below this update.] Yes. While having an octet of valence electrons creates an exceptionally deep energy minimum for most atoms, it is only a minimum, not a fundamental requirement. If there are sufficiently strong compensating energy factors, even atoms that strongly prefer octets ...


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Yes, it can. We have molecules which contain "superoctet atoms". Examples: $\ce{PBr5, XeF6, SF6, HClO4, Cl2O7, I3- , K4[Fe(CN)6], O=PPh3 }$ Almost all coordination compounds have a superoctet central atom. Non-metals from Period 3 onwards are prone to this as well. The halogens, sulfur, and phosphorus are repeat offenders, while all noble gas compounds ...


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I think your question implicates another question (which is also mentioned in some comments here), namely: Why are all energy eigenvalues of states with a different angular momentum quantum number $\ell$ but with the same principal quantum number $n$ (e.g. $3s$, $3p$, $3d$) degenerate in the hydrogen atom but non-degenerate in multi-electron atoms? Although ...


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In chemistry, and in science in general, there are many ways of explaining the same empirical rule. Here, I am giving an overview that is very light on quantum chemistry: it should be fairly readable at a novice level, but will not explain in its deepest way the reasons for the existence of electronic shells. The “rule” you are citing is known as the octet ...


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Shells and orbitals are not the same. In terms of quantum numbers, electrons in different shells will have different values of principal quantum number n. To answer your question... In the first shell (n=1), we have: The 1s orbital In the second shell (n=2), we have: The 2s orbital The 2p orbitals In the third shell (n=3), we have: The 3s orbital The ...


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Something worth adding to this discussion that I'm surprised hasn't been mentioned about such "hypervalent" molecules like $\ce{SF6}$. One of my professors at university informed me that the common explanation (that the empty d-orbitals are empty and are thus accessible) is actually most likely incorrect. This is an old-model explanation that is out-of-date,...


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There's another question related to salt bridges on this site. The purpose of a salt bridge is not to move electrons from the electrolyte, rather it's to maintain charge balance because the electrons are moving from one-half cell to the other. The electrons flow from the anode to the cathode. The oxidation reaction that occurs at the anode generates ...


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I understand that covalent bonding is an equilibrium state between attractive and repulsive forces, but which one of fundamental forces actually causes atoms to attract each other? The role of Pauli Exclusion in bonding It is an unfortunate accident of history that because chemistry has a very convenient and predictive set of approximations for ...


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This question may be difficult to answer because there are a couple of definitions of valence electrons. Some books and dictionaries define valence electrons as "outer shell electrons that participate in chemical bonding" and by this definition, elements can have more than 8 valence electrons as explained by F'x. Some books and dictionaries define valence ...


36

General chemistry textbooks tend to explain atomic structure exceedingly poorly using a hodgepodge of obsolete concepts. Your chemistry book provides such a typical example - the notion of penetration only makes sense in the ancient Bohr-Sommerfeld model that has been obsolete since the discovery of quantum mechanics! The idea was that orbits of electrons in ...


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Here's a graphic I use to explain the difference in my general chemistry courses: All electrons that have the same value for $n$ (the principle quantum number) are in the same shell Within a shell (same $n$), all electrons that share the same $l$ (the angular momentum quantum number, or orbital shape) are in the same sub-shell When electrons share the same $...


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There is a big difference between a "rule" and a law of nature. The "octet rule" is a turn-of-the-last-century concept that somehow managed to get into introductory chemistry books and never got kicked out with the advent of modern quantum mechanics. (Circumstantial proof: it is impossible to identify individual electrons to label them "valence" or "not ...


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As you move from left to right across a period, the number of protons in the nucleus increases. The electrons are thus attracted to the nucleus more strongly, and the atomic radius is smaller (this attraction is much stronger than the relatively weak repulsion between electrons). As you move down a column, there are more protons, but there are also more ...


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You seem to be misunderstanding what is a "sea of electrons". In fact, this is a metaphor upon a metaphor upon an abstraction. There is no sea. There is a huge bunch of orbitals. (Sure, the solid state people prefer to call them "states", but that's not really important.) The whole piece of metal is a giant molecule. It is not all that different from ...


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The pattern of maximum possible electrons = $2n^2$ is correct. Also, note that Brian's answer is good and takes a different approach. Have you learned about quantum numbers yet? If not... Each shell (or energy level) has some number of subshells, which describe the types of atomic orbitals available to electrons in that subshell. For example, the $s$ ...


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Disclaimer My following answer is the "traditional" explanation of Hund's first rule, which is based on a smaller value of $V_\mathrm{ee}$ (electron-electron repulsions) in the triplet state arising from Fermi holes. According to Levine's Quantum Chemistry 7th ed.: This traditional explanation turns out to be wrong in most cases. It is true that the ...


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The analogy with a proton is actually a good one if you are careful to remember that an electron is nearly 2000 times lighter than a proton. What does that mean? It means that despite the fact that an electron is very "small", the electron is actually going to be very large because lighter particles will tend to spread out and have a much more diffuse ...


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s, p, d, f and so on are the names given to the orbitals that hold the electrons in atoms. These orbitals have different shapes (e.g. electron density distributions in space) and energies (e.g. 1s is lower energy than 2s which is lower energy than 3s; 2s is lower energy than 2p). (image source) So for example, a hydrogen atom with one electron would be ...


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It depends on what you mean by "spin". If you mean "have intrinsic internal angular momentum, independent of its trajectory through space", then yes, electrons spin, and that's what the quantum number is measuring. Though if by "spin" you mean "undergoes rotation" ("there's a little billiard ball, and if I were to put a mark on it and watch it, the mark ...


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It seems like it should be the average distance that matters No. It is the average energy that matters. Note that this stuff about "spends so much time here and so much there..." is really just a (not particularly good) way of describing a quantum-mechanical wave function's absolute square. The electron is actually never at any particular place in the ...


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Fluorine is the most electronegative element because the definition of electronegativity makes it so. The electronengativity scales are defined based on experimentally determined properties of the elements. Fluorine has appropriate values for all of the common scales to ensure it has the highest electronegativity. The Pauling scale, which is the first ...


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Short Answer: No. Long Answer: First, strictly speaking, the orbitals themselves in the quantum mechanical sense are not probability distributions. They are eigenfunctions $\Psi_i$ of the Hamiltonian as defined by the time-independent Schroedinger equation $H\Psi_i=E_i\Psi_i$. The probability distribution function $p(\vec r)$ for electrons is generated ...


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There are 3 types of octet rule "violations" or exceptions molecules with an odd number of electrons, such as nitric oxide (image source) molecules with less than 8 electrons around an atom, $\ce{BeCl2}$ and $\ce{BH3}$ serve as examples (image source) molecules with more than 8 electrons around an atom, such as $\ce{PCl5}$ or $\ce{SF6}$ Take a look at ...


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I'll try an answer to this question because I watched this video a while back and did a bit of reading on it at the time and I think I understand the big picture. The problem is that these solvated electrons are very complicated things, and do not lend themselves to the traditional ways that chemists would like to think about things. For that reason, there ...


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The lowest energy state has parallel spins to maximize the exchange energy. As you say, there's a Coulomb repulsion between two electrons to put them in the same orbital. There's also a quantum mechanical effect. The exchange energy (which is favorable) increases with the number of possible exchanges between electrons with the same spin and energy. Going ...


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Quoting from the Nobel lecture of Hans G. Dehmelt (1989): With the rise of Dirac’s theory of the electron in the late twenties their size shrunk to mathematically zero. Everybody “knew” then that electron and proton were indivisible Dirac point particles with radius R = 0 and gyromagnetic ratio g = 2.00. The first hint of cuttability or at least ...


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Atoms are composed of a positively charged nucleus and an outer shell of negatively charged electrons. When two atoms come into close proximity, their electron shells repel, preventing the atoms from sharing the same space. The "volume" of an object can generally be understood as the total measure of space that is unavailable for other objects to occupy, as ...


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Remember, the 'size' of an atom has nothing to do with the size of the nucleus. It has to do with the size of the valence shell (which itself is not well-defined*). So, if we neglect change in electrical attraction, the size should stay the same—a shell is a shell and it need not 'expand' to accomodate electrons. Now, as we add more protons and electrons, ...


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In the definition of an s shell, you will find that its $\ell$ number is zero. In classical terms, that corresponds to an orbit with zero orbital or angular momentum — which for a large object is a clear impossibility. For an electron, it gives the peculiar result that any electron in any s shell is, classically speaking, moving back and forth through the ...


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The ratio of the speed of an electron traveling in the first Bohr orbit to the speed of light is given by the handy equation $$\mathrm{V_{rel}=\frac{[Z]}{[137]}}$$ where Z is the atomic number of the element under consideration and 137 is the speed of light in atomic units, also known as the fine structure constant. Consequently a 1s electron in the ...


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