Questions tagged [electrons]

Electrons are subatomic particles with the symbol e−. They have a negative electric charge (-1 elementary charge. )

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electron - nuclei recombination within stars

Nuclear fusion within stars combine atom nuclei, so the atoms are ionized and electrons run for free. My question is, when or how these electrons recombine with the nuclei to form neutral atoms? ...
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Why do electrons move from farther orbital (3d) to closer orbital (4s) upon excitation? [closed]

I have learnt that as the electrons move towards higher shells it attains more energy. However, according to Aufbau's principle, the order of filling up of orbitals is as follows: $$1\mathrm s < 2\...
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Do atoms gain or lose all the electrons at once or one by one? [closed]

We all know atoms gain or lose electrons to attain stability. So, my question is: Do they lose or gain all the electrons(to be donated or gained) at once or step by step i.e, one by one? For example: ...
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Maximum Local Value for the Electron Density

So the electron density is the function $\rho(\vec x)$ that associates a value of electrons per angstrom, to each point $\vec x$ in the 3D space. This information tells us how likely it is to find ...
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How can an electron being a wave have such property as spin?

Here's what I know about electrons. Electrons have wave-like properties and the number of wavelengths in the $n^\text{th}$ shell is equal to $n(\lambda).$ Also, I read in my book that they have ...
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Regarding comparison of ionization energies [closed]

Why is the ionization energy of $\ce{Mg^2+}$ greater than the ionization energy of $\ce{Ne}$ (neon)? My teacher said the answer was $\ce{Mg^2+}$ but I have no idea why as my general knowledge tells ...
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But what are anti-bonding pi-orbital? In search for an intuitive explanation [closed]

Imagine that you want to explain to an undergraduate why they have to to shade the pi-orbitals in a symmetrical way, i.e. dark on top (+), white on bottom (-) for two neighbouring pi-orbitals because ...
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Ionic radius for tetrahedral metal–ligand complexes

The ionic radii for metal–ligand complexes that are in an octahedral coordination are easy to find. I understand that when the $\mathrm{e_g}$ orbital is filled, the ionic radius increases because the ...
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Where do the three negative oxygens in a phosphate group get their missing electron from?

A video I watched showed the construction of a phosphate group using a Lewis structure. The oxygen with the double bond fills its octet group. The three other oxygens lack an electron. The teacher ...
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Electron configuration of iron(I) cation

What is the electron configuration of $\ce{Fe+}$ cation? \begin{align} \ce{Fe+} &\!:~ [\ce{Ar}]\mathrm{(3d)^6(4s)^1}\label{chm:1}\tag{1}\\ \ce{Fe+} &\!:~ [\ce{Ar}]\mathrm{(3d)^7(4s)^0}\label{...
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What does an electron's spin of 0.5 and minus 0.5 signify?

While teaching me magnetism, my teacher told me about the spin of an electron. He told me that the spin of .5 means that if we rotate the electron twice counter-clockwise on its axis, we would have ...
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Why does covalent bonding not break down if observer effect can be applied to atomic electrons? [closed]

The observer effect in quantum mechanics states that when unobserved, quantum particles such as electrons can simultaneously occupy two different states. In an atom of any element, where there are ...
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Could observer effect cause electrons in one orbital to be found in another?

The observer effect states that when unobserved, absolutely small particles like electrons can simultaneously be in two different states at the same time. (Tro, N. J. (2015). Principles of Chemistry: ...
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What exactly are electron states?

From Tro's Chemistry: Structure and Properties [1, p. 93]: 2.5 Quantum Mechanics and the Atom As we have seen, the position and velocity of the electron are complementary properties—if we know one ...
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How does a battery create a potential differece (voltage)? [closed]

I'm 15 and recently started electronics and I just had a question about batteries. (I've been told by people on physics stack exchange to come here to have my question answered). From what I ...
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Distribution of negative charges in iodine dioxide difluoride anion [closed]

I was drawing the structure for $\ce{[IO2F2]-}.$ I'm stuck on whether the negative charge should be given to oxygen or iodine.
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How to determine the number of electron in a shell [duplicate]

My textbook has been mentioned that the maximum number of electron in a shell is 2n² and the octet rule. It has also said that period number signifies the number of electron shells of an element and ...
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Grasping the concept of Electronic Spin, Effective Spin and Fictitious Spin

Trying to learn alone some aspects of quantum mechanics is, sometimes, a struggle. Reading the excellent paper by Piwowarska [1] I was hoping to, finally, understand what is the origin of the so-...
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Difference between spin-orbit coupling and the Russell-Saunders Effect?

The Russell-Saunders effect is the same thing as 'spin-orbit interaction, correct? The reason I am asking is because I was reviewing the Wikipedia page on 'spin-orbit interaction' and it does not ...
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Why do subshells and orbitals exist? [closed]

I'm just a curious high school student. Sorry if this sounds dumb. How exactly did the concept of atomic subshells and orbitals come about? And why exactly are there n-1 subshells and 2l+1 orbitals? ...
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While calculating the effective nuclear charge, why don't we consider effect of outer electrons on inner ones? [duplicate]

When calculating the effective nuclear charge for an electron, why do we only consider the repulsive effect of the inner electrons on the outer electrons? The outer electrons also repel the inner ones ...
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What is the unit of Z effective?

Z effective is the net positive charge experienced by an electron. But what is the unit of this net charge: coulomb (C) or microcoulomb (μC), or something else?
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Is there an opposite to shielding effect? [closed]

I recently read about shielding effect and lowering of effective nuclear charge due to penetration of other electrons. I wonder while doing calculations involving Slater's rules the electrons from ...
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Electron tunneling between orbitals

Electrons can move through potential barriers by tunneling. Atomic/molecular orbitals are separated by energy differences. Therefore I was wondering if an electron can tunnel from one orbital to ...
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Can a charge smaller than that of an electron exist? If so how? [closed]

In school I've always been taught that the smallest charge possible is that of an electron( or proton) however I recently solved a question regarding a dipole and the charge came smaller than that of ...
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How does the charge imbalance affect the cell reaction when there is no salt bridge in a galvanic cell?

As mentioned in the answers to this question Why is it important to use a salt bridge in a voltaic cell? Can a wire be used? a salt bridge is used to keep the two half cells neutral. i understand how ...
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Why do we see complementary colors in UV/Vis Spectroscopy? [closed]

From what I read, a compound that absorbs visible light will produce a complementary color (using the color wheel), that can be seen. Why is this the case? Is it because, for example, if a molecule ...
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Is the C-I bond polar?

Carbon and iodine have similar electronegativities. The reason quoted for the C-I bond having polarity is that iodine is more polarisable. But what does this actually mean? Carbon distorts the ...
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Alkali metals chemistry [closed]

Ok my understanding of the electronic structure of atoms could be wrong but this is why I don't understand:Why alkali metals are so much electropositive. Some high school professor in chemistry would ...
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Why doesn't core charge increase down a group? [closed]

Atomic radius increases down a group because the electrons feel a lesser attraction to the positive nucleus (due to shielding from inner shells). Why then, doesn't core charge decrease seeing as core ...
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How come we can't use the equivalence point equation of NV=NV in this problem?

So, the problem is you prepare to standardize a $\ce{Na2S2O3}$ solution. $\pu{32 mL}$ of $\ce{Na2S2O3}$ solution is titrated into $\pu{50 mL}$ of a $\pu{0.01 M} \ \ce{KIO3}$ solution to reach the ...
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Where do the electrons in lead–acid battery come from? [closed]

$$ \begin{align} \ce{PbO2 + H2SO4 &-> PbSO4 + H2O + O} &\quad &\text{(anode)}\\ \ce{Pb + H2SO4 &-> PbSO4 + H2} &\quad &\text{(cathode)} \end{align} $$ The cathode’s $\ce{...
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Does an orbital have its own energy, separate from the electron? Can I picture them as a entity independent from the hosted particle? [closed]

Does an orbital have its own energy, separate from the electron? If so, is it possible for an electron to have a different energy than the orbital it occupies?
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Equilibrium cell potential question

In an attempt to wrap my head around the basics of electrochemistry I'm working my way through Wesley R. Browne's 'Electrochemistry' primer. With regards to the equilibrium potential of an ...
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Is my understanding of cyclic voltammetry correct? [closed]

So recently I've been roped into doing some CV and I'm trying to wrap my head around the fundamentals of the science behind it (and electrochemistry more generally! Bare in mind I'm very much not an ...
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How does actually negative charge travel in phenol from ortho to para to ortho? [duplicate]

When we say negative charge flows from ortho to para position, and electron density at ortho and para is more, where does electron actually stay at ortho and para? Is it at $p_\mathrm{z}$ orbital or ...
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Difference in a array of probability density plots for the electron in its lowest-energy states of Hydrogen atom [closed]

Dynamic Periodic Table If you visit Dynamic Peridic Table, You will notice that for n=4 l=3,2 m=0,0, and n=2,l=1, m=0 there is a difference in the probability density plots for electron in its ...
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Breaking of carbon chains due to annihilation of electrons using positron beams

I and my friends were taking part in a competition(physics and chem expertise needed) and we were having a few doubts about something. I was hoping if anyone of you can help in the clarification of ...
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Term symbols for excited nitrogen (2s2p^4 configuration)

Looking at the NIST levels listing for neutral nitrogen atom, one of the excited configuration is $2s2p^4$ configuration. https://physics.nist.gov/cgi-bin/ASD/energy1.pl?encodedlist=XXT2&de=0&...
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Electron arrangement in Nickel [duplicate]

I'm struggling to understand why the element Nickel can be written like so: [Ar]3d84s2, but cannot be written as [Ar]3d10. I know that the d-orbital can 'house' 10 electrons, and that according to ...
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Photoelectric effect question

My attempt:- 1)At 0.68e15 Hz frequency of light,Metal A gives 7.2eV Kinetic Energy(KE). 2)At 1e15 Hz frequency of light, Metal B, gives 6eV Kinetic Energy. 3) At 1.1e15 Hz frequency of light, Metal ...
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Spin Operator algebra

I am trying to teach myself some QM. In Christopher J. Cramers textbook Essentials of Computational Chemistry: theory and models, in Appendix C, he goes over Spin algebra. I am unable to calculate ...
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Why does ψ^2 ( square of orbital wave function ψ) give the probability of an electron in a given region? [duplicate]

Today I was introduced to the Orbital Wave Function for electrons. $\Psi$ is a mathematical function for coordinate of electrons and has no physical meaning. But $\Psi^2$ gives probability of an ...
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Electron pairing in atoms

A question asks: This question refers to isolated gaseous atoms. In which atom are all electrons paired? Ba, Br, S or Si? I thought it was Ba as its electron configuration is [Xe] 6s2. However, ...
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Why is the first energy of ionization of oxygen lesser than that of nitrogen? [duplicate]

The following question arises from a question I found in my book. Experimentally it has been determined that the value of the first energy of ionization of oxygen is lesser than the first energy ...
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Predicting directions of redox reactions [closed]

Hello! In this textbook example question, how come the chlorine reaction, which has the greatest reducing power will not react? If it has the greatest E of 1.36 V that means it has most reducing ...
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How does Fe2+ become Fe in sacrificial protection? [closed]

I've searched low and high on the internet, but nothing to help me. I know that zinc is oxidised in preference to iron, and that it "donates" those two electrons to iron. $$\ce{Zn -> Zn^2+ + 2e-}$$...
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Reconciling electron configuration and valence electron distribution over separate energy levels in energy band theory [duplicate]

The electron configuration of a Silicon atom in its ground state is $\ce{1s^2 2s^2 2p^2 3s^2 3p^2}$, or equivalently, $\ce{[Ne] 3s^2 3p^2}$. When looking at the energy-level scheme of a silicon atom, ...
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Direction of electron density in p orbitals

$\mathrm{s}$ orbitals are spherically symmetric while $\mathrm{p}$ orbitals are not. For Boron, the electronic configuration is $\mathrm{1s^2 2s^2 2p^1}$. In which p orbital does the most energetic ...
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On steric effects and stereoelectronic effects

From what I understand, stereoelectronic effects are the structure, reactivity, and physical properties of molecules as a result of relative arrangement of orbitals in space. Steric effects result ...

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