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The one p electron is energetically much higher than the two s electrons (and any d electrons, if present). So it is rather easily removed to give a monocation or the $\mathrm{+I}$ oxidation state. Thereafter, to remove a second electron you need to rip out one of the paired s electrons. This is not going to be easy and requires a lot of energy. But once ...


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Essentially, this derives from Dirac’s relativistic quantum mechanics. In nonrelativistic quantum mechanics—the Schrödinger equation that you are probably highly familiar with—p orbitals are triply degenerate while d orbitals are 5-way degenerate. However, nonrelativistic quantum mechanics does not include the electronic property known as spin unless it is ...


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A lot of questions in here. It also states that in heavier elements the inner electrons move with a speed approaching the speed of light. So why don't we consider the great amount of kinetic energy associated with the electron? If we consider this energy then the inner orbitals should not be filled first owing to their great amount of energy? In the ...


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The way you put it that everything wants to achieve noble gas configuration is a good rule of thumb for predicting molecules that are stable and long-lived. However, not everything is in equilibrium. A methyl cation certainly exists, and it certainly wants to achieve the noble gas configuration, but it still takes time to do so. So we can conclude that the ...


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After searching on the internet, and going through textbooks, I understand there is no "shortcut-method" to get the atomic term symbols in atoms with a large number of electrons.


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A qualitative way to understand this trend is that with each increase in n, going row by row down a column, the electrons of filled inner shells create a screening effect upon the charge of the nucleus. The nuclear charge grows with each added proton, but as electrons are placed into new shells (with larger n) above previous shells, they experience not only ...


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You're right that Cu0 has one unpaired electron in the 4s orbital. If you were to observe a single Cu0 atom in the gas phase, you would observe some paramagnetic behavior. However, in metallic copper, the valence orbitals are engaged in metal-to-metal bonding. The 3d and 4s orbitals interact in constructive overlap with neighboring copper atoms to produce ...


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