40 votes

Can an atom bond with more than 8 other atoms?

Yes, there are coordination complexes of large elements which have coordination numbers greater than eight. Some examples are: $\ce{[ReH9]^2-}$ with a tricapped trigonal prismatic structure. The nine ...
bon's user avatar
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31 votes

Can an atom bond with more than 8 other atoms?

14 coordination is claimed in $\ce{U(BH4)4}$ (ref_1, p. 268). The molecule exists as a polymer in the solid state. Six hydrogens from two of the $\ce{BH4}$ groups bond between the boron and uranium (...
ron's user avatar
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31 votes

What is the physical basis for Hund's first rule?

Disclaimer My following answer is the "traditional" explanation of Hund's first rule, which is based on a smaller value of $V_\mathrm{ee}$ (electron-electron repulsions) in the triplet state arising ...
orthocresol's user avatar
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25 votes

Molecular orbital (MO) diagram for N2 and N2^-

I have been taught that the MO diagram is different for molecules with 14 or less electrons than the one used for molecules with 15 or more electrons. This is (partly) wrong because the change in ...
Wildcat's user avatar
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23 votes
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Will adding up protons and electrons (without neutrons) create a new element?

Yes and no. Elements are defined by the number of protons only. It does not matter if (say) a carbon nucleus has six or seven (or eight) neutrons, they will all react the same.* With that, to create ...
Jan's user avatar
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22 votes

What is SPDF configuration?

s, p, d, f and so on are the names given to the orbitals that hold the electrons in atoms. These orbitals have different shapes (e.g. electron density distributions in space) and energies (e.g. 1s is ...
ron's user avatar
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22 votes

Which relatively simple molecules violate the octet rule?

There are 3 types of octet rule "violations" or exceptions molecules with an odd number of electrons, such as nitric oxide (image source) molecules with less than 8 electrons around an atom, $\ce{...
ron's user avatar
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22 votes
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Why do 3d orbitals have lesser energy than 4s orbitals in transition metals?

Disclaimer: I now believe this answer to be fully incorrect. Please consider un-upvoting it and/or downvoting it. I do not like seeing incorrect answers at +22. However, I will leave it up ...
orthocresol's user avatar
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22 votes
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What is the physical basis for Hund's first rule?

The lowest energy state has parallel spins to maximize the exchange energy. As you say, there's a Coulomb repulsion between two electrons to put them in the same orbital. There's also a quantum ...
Geoff Hutchison's user avatar
22 votes
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Why are protons more common than hydride ion?

This is because we live in a world dominated by oxygen and water. In other words, it is an oxidized world. Most metals occur naturally in the form of oxides, silicates, halides, or other derivatives. ...
Ivan Neretin's user avatar
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21 votes
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Difference between Coupled Cluster and Full CI

Full Coupled Cluster (FCC) vs. Full Configuration Interaction (FCI) The main theoretical difference is the way excitations are used. "Excitation" refers to putting one or more electrons in higher ...
TAR86's user avatar
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21 votes
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Degeneracy of second excited state of H-?

I think it is important to understand that for hydrogen atom (or any other one-electron system) all orbitals from the same shell have same energy. For instance, $E_\mathrm{2s} = E_\mathrm{2p}$, $E_\...
Wildcat's user avatar
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20 votes

Will adding up protons and electrons (without neutrons) create a new element?

Jan's answer is correct. I will try to fill in a few details about why neutrons are essential to creating stable nuclei. All stable isotopes excepting Hydrogen-1 have neutrons in their nuclei. ...
Marco's user avatar
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17 votes
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Hypervalency and the octet rule

Out there in the real world, university students and school pupils alike favour strict rules that are true as often as possible (or at least have clear, easily remembered exceptions), while their ...
Jan's user avatar
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17 votes
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What do these labels for molecular electronic states mean?

As stated in this answer, these are irrep (irreducible representation) labels for molecular symmetry point groups. In the context of chemistry, point groups are usually introduced when learning about ...
pentavalentcarbon's user avatar
17 votes
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Help understanding how "steric effects" are distinct from "electronic effects"?

The normal distinction between "steric" and "electronic" is based on whether the effect is transmitted through space or through bonds All the normal physical interactions we ...
matt_black's user avatar
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16 votes

Can an atom bond with more than 8 other atoms?

There has been quite some interesting work by my former co-worker and my supervisor on metal-rich molecule with the co-ordination higher than eight. For more see Timo Bollermann, Thomas Cadenbach, ...
Martin - マーチン's user avatar
15 votes

Can an atom have more than 8 valence electrons? If not, why is 8 the limit?

Why 8? has not really been addressed by the above answers, and while tangential to the question, it is somewhat important to be considered. In general, but not always, atoms react to form complete ...
Lighthart's user avatar
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15 votes
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While filling electrons, we follow Aufbau principle, but not while removing them. Why is this so?

Usually when adding electrons based on the Aufbau principle, you go from one element to the next highest one, e.g. from $\ce{Ti}: \ce{[Ar] 4s^2 3d^2}$ to $\ce{V: [Ar] 4s^2 3d^3}$. Thus you add not ...
Feodoran's user avatar
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14 votes

Can an atom bond with more than 8 other atoms?

In october 2015, 5 months after all the current answers were given, a new cluster compound witn C.N. 16, $\ce{CoB16-}$, has been reported [1]: Here we report the observation of a large metal-doped ...
andselisk's user avatar
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13 votes
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What is the difference between the KLMN and SPDF methods of finding electronic configuration?

The KLMN(OP) method is based on electron shells, with the labels KLMN(OP) being derived from an experiment in which the spectroscopist wanted to leave room for lower energy transitions in case there ...
Ben Norris's user avatar
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13 votes

Why do atoms need 8 electrons to stabilize?

The valence orbitals of atoms are composed of suborbitals (s and p) there is 1 s suborbital which is spherical and can hold 2 electrons (one with up spin and one with down spin). There are 3 p ...
A.K.'s user avatar
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12 votes

What is the physical basis for Hund's first rule?

Some understanding can be gained by looking at the symmetry of the orbital parts of the wavefunctions involved. The total wavefunction for electrons must be anti-symmetric with respect to exchanging ...
porphyrin's user avatar
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12 votes
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"NBO diagrams" versus MO diagrams

A molecular orbital diagram is a schematic representation of how we interpret bonding in certain species. It is as much an accurate representation for a specific bonding situation as a Lewis structure ...
Martin - マーチン's user avatar
11 votes
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A unique demo for singlet oxygen?

Admittedly, I'm having a professional photochemical bias when it comes to the generation of singlet oxygen! A rather safe and simple approach - even in home experiments - is the use of air, sunlight ...
Klaus-Dieter Warzecha's user avatar
11 votes

Why does Boron only need 6 valence electrons unlike the standard 8?

The principle of full octet is that most reactivity patterns are described well if there is a driving force / energetic gain for full octets in main-group atoms. However, the only facet of an atom ...
Lighthart's user avatar
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11 votes
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Effects of atmospheric gases on colour of aurora

There is good information at Glowing Gases - Aurorae There are many factors that need to be considered. Once an atom or molecule is excited, it can lose the energy by collision or by emission of ...
DavePhD's user avatar
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11 votes
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Why do rare earth metal oxides vary in color so much?

TL;DR f-f transitions in lanthanide ions give rise to the colours of the ions. The electronic states can be derived from quantum mechanics, and their energies vary from ion to ion, which give rise to ...
orthocresol's user avatar
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11 votes

How P(C2H5)3 acts as a ligand?

As I already mentioned in my comment, phosphines such as $\ce{PEt3}$ can bind to transition metals with partially filled d orbitals as a σ-donor as well as a π-acceptor. The σ interaction is simply a ...
orthocresol's user avatar
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11 votes
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How are the π bonds arranged in Osmium Tetroxide?

Your conception of $\pi$-bonds is a bit too restrictive. A $\pi$-bond is a bond in which there is one node along the internuclear axis. So, yes, two side-on $p$-orbitals do form a $\pi$ bond because ...
levineds's user avatar
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