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The rate of electrolysis is the amount of copper $n\ce{(Cu})$ deposited at the cathode per second (in mol/s). This amount $n\ce{(Cu})$ is proportional to the time $t$ and to the current $I$ (in Amperes) according to the Faraday's law : $n = It/zF$. Now the current $I$ depends on the voltage $U$ according to Ohm's law : $I = U/R $ where $R$ is the resistance ...


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Let's take as an example a $1$ M $\ce{CuCl2}$ solution in water. If two platinum or charcoal electrodes are dipped into this solution, they will not react with this solution. If a small voltage (< $\pu{1.02 V}$} is applied on the electrodes, nothing happens. If now a higher continuous voltage (>$1.02$ V) is applied, electrolysis proceeds. At the ...


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Copper ion concentration is a variable, of course. However, the rate of copper deposition is DIRECTLY related to the current being passed. Well, except for the possible complexities addressed below. If increasing the copper ion concentration increases the rate of copper deposition, it is likely because the power supply is not regulated. The resistance of the ...


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There are electrode reactions controlled by electron transfer(slow ones) or by diffusion(fast ones). Depending on choice of forced electrode potentials, electrolyzer geometry and ion concentration, many reactions can be arranged to be electron-transfer limited or diffusion limited. If the cathode potential is decreased below its equilibrium potential, the ...


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Since AC can be capacitively coupled to the solution, metallic electrodes don't need to contact the solution -- they can be outside an insulating container, e.g., glass or PTFE, avoiding introducing metal ions. At moderate AC frequencies, ions won't migrate an appreciable distance in one direction before returning to that position on the opposite half of ...


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Yes, NASA has good information on Hydrogen Safety. Here is the key take away, to quote: Hydrogen has a very broad flammability range—a 4 percent to 74 percent concentration in air and 4 percent to 94 percent in oxygen; therefore, keeping air or oxygen from mixing with hydrogen inside confined spaces is very important. So, how does one practically stay out ...


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Boiling down Chlorine Bleach composed of sodium hypochlorite (and sodium chloride owing to its industrial creation from the action of chlorine on NaOH) results in mostly just NaCl and a touch of NaClO3. It is the first step in a generally inefficient path to chlorate (see, for example, discussion here). Sodium chlorate liberates upon heating oxygen gas (see ...


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No. Sodium hypochlorite decomposes at 101°C.


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The short answer as to why the rate of electrolysis increases with temperature likely relates to elevated efficiency. However depending on the nature of the cell, there can be an offset in the cell's corresponding longevity. In case of the electrolysis of molten sodium chloride, for example, the ions are free to migrate to the electrodes of an electrolytic ...


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