6

After some searching, I found this 1956 Thesis(Reference), which describes the production of peroxydisulfuric by electrolyzing concentrated sulfuric acid. The yield varied according to the concentration of the acid, temperature, current, and the nature of the electrode. In the Thesis, the chemist noted that discharged $\ce{HSO4-}$ united together to form ...


6

An atom is only neutral when viewed as a single object from large enough distance. But as an electron comes closer to the atom, it "notices" the electron cloud first. This cloud also "notices" the electron and deforms—the atom polarizes—so as to keep the atomic electrons farther on average from the extra electron, since like charges repel. But this ...


4

Many recommended procedures such as this one call for connecting (+) to (+), then (-) on the "good" battery to a metal component in the "dead" car engine. The negative terminal of the battery is grounded to the metal components, so we may think of the last connection as (-) on the dead car. If a spark were to form when the circuit is established on the ...


3

I can provide some physical intuition, but it's still going to require math and previous work to make it happen (aside on this at the end). Let's consider a particle in just one dimension. There are two quantities of interest: (1) the position of the particle along this coordinate, (2) the scalar momentum (related to the velocity) along this coordinate. I'...


3

Done that dozens of times, have never seens sparks fly. The current flowing is not exactly huge, you are connecting (first) + to +, and (then) - to -, after all. The voltage difference is perhaps 3V, not 12. I don't think there is an electrochemical reason to do it in this order. Afaik it's just so you dont short-circuit one battery if you slip with the ...


3

Perhaps you consider the volume allotted to the batteries as equivalent to capacity. A better measure would be ampere-hours at 4.5v, or watt-hours. And weight might be a factor to consider. An electrochemical cell with a high voltage (4.5v) that requires complicated or dilute ingredients could better fill the volume allotted, but if it runs out of power in ...


2

The little problem with the standard addition in potentiometry is, that the response to the addition is not linear, but logarithmic. If we consider the simplified Nernst equation in context of parameters $A, B$, and if we consider $c, c_\mathrm{0}$ as unknown concentration and concentration increment, respectively, we can follow this derivation: $$\...


2

A good mnemonic to remember which is the anode or the cathode is to remember that Right side represents Reduction in a cell diagram. This is fixed by those who invented cell notation.. Also, by definition, reduction occurs at the cathode. Whether it is a spontaneous cell or not, is another question. Now as EdV said, calculate the cell potential as written i....


2

The potassium ions in the reduction half-cell are inert, merely serving as part of the electrolyte. The are no problem at all. Indeed, you actually need to allow for the passage of more potassium ions through your separator, to balance the potassium metal that's dissolving and make up for the cations being plated out at the cathode.


1

One problem is there is not enough voltage for this thing to sell. Say you have molar acid and 1 molar base, both strong and both functioning as ideal solutions. Thermodynamically you have one electron transfer associated with the net reaction $\ce{H^+}_{aq}+\ce{OH^-}_{aq}\to\ce{H2O}$ and the equilibrium constant is $10^{14}$ at room temperature. Put ...


1

As you can see from figures in Zhe's answer that it is possible by adding waves to make a wavepacket. The characteristic of a wave is that superpositions are possible and these lead to interference/diffraction phenomena. By analysing the wavepacket's spread in wavelength and position, the expression $\Delta k.\Delta x \ge 1$ is found where $k=2\pi/\lambda$. ...


1

There is a simple way to understand this if you understand the relationship between frequency and wavelength in a vibrating string But you can't avoid at least some mathematics. They key to understanding where the position momentum uncertainly relationship comes from is to think about the relationship between the frequencies present in a musical note and ...


1

It's simply a consequence of wave mechanics and operators. Any observable, i.e., any observable which can be measured in a physical experiment should be associated with a quantum-mechanical operator (like + or - operators, just more complicated). Furthermore, if these operators are intrinsically non-communicative, or if the order in which they are applied ...


1

I can answer your first two questions. I am confused by 'require', do ions upon discharging gain energy or lose energy? Ions lose free energy during discharging, as you are referring to the spontaneous process of transferring charge at the electrodes with conversion of some of the ions into neutral species (in general you are speaking about the process ...


1

Can the Volta Battery use a different ionic solution? Yes you can use any soluble salt as long as it does not react with electrodes, and certainly such a battery would be able to produce current. My chemistry high school teacher had a clock which ran on salt water. See for example, https://science.howstuffworks.com/environmental/green-tech/sustainable/water-...


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