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The $\pu{3.6-3.8 V}$ range is a good general choice, but it may be battery-specific. The particular voltage for 40% charge may differ for different cell technologies, e.g. various deviations of electrode materials and due to cell aging. The optimal storage conditions, as you mentioned, are more often expressed as charge/capacity % ratio. Usually, the optimal ...


7

The short answer is: The ending stage uses much smaller charging current, so it lasts longer. TCharging of any cell in the contant voltage mode, not limited to lithium cells, leads to asymptotically decreasing of the charging current and progressively slowing down charging proces. The reason behind is the charging voltage must not cross the maximal allowed ...


3

The question lacks to specify e.g, the type of X-ray radiation (energy of exciting electrons), or the nature of the target. In parts, arguments put forward by @Amir Kalashnikov may be misunderstood as if concepts of classical optics (e.g., for a reflection target, as if the angle between the incident ray and the surface normalwould equate the angle ...


3

The angle of resulting X-ray radiation, product of the impact, is related to the amount of energy or momentum of the cathode ray. Bremsstrahlung relation will amount how much energy the produced photon has. $$hf = \frac{hc}{\lambda} = K - K'\tag{1}$$ $$\lambda_\mathrm{min} = \frac{hc}{K} = \frac{hc}{e\,\Delta V}\tag{2}$$ Back scatter the possible photon ...


2

The polarity of water? Rory Geoghegan The deflection of a stream of water by an electric charge is often cited as a demonstration of the polarity of water molecules. The idea has even found its way into science text books. What’s wrong with the explanation? Water molecules are polar; this is true. However it is also true that they electrically neutral and ...


1

When referring to a chemical reaction that generates electricity we talk in general about 2 coupled half-reactions : one in which something gets an electron and one in which something gives an electron. Now the electrode can act as part of the redox reaction but that is not necessarily , it can only act as a way of moving the electron generated by one half-...


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