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The number of complex compounds that are surrounded by water molecules is quite big , a few examples of water being a ligand include [Cu(H2O)4]2+ or [Co(H2O)6]2+. Anyway oxygen is indeed less eager to donate its electrons because its electronegativity is considerably high, nitrogen for example works better as a ligand (actually the first complex compounds to ...

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Oxygen very much does form bonds in which both electrons come from the oxygen atom. Examples include: 1. The $\ce{H3O^+}$ ion at the center of the solvated proton in aqueous acids, also available as salts of some of the strongest acids such as $\ce{(H3O)(ClO4)}$ 2. Carbon monoxide, with its triple rather than double bond. 3. Ozone, in which the oxygen ...

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Lattice energy is a function of the radius ratio, which when tends to 1, improves the packing efficiency of the molecule. Here the radius ratio of the chloride ions and aluminium ions is much closer than the fluoride ions. You could think of this from the born habers cycle also. Where the electron affinity of chlorine is higher, which leads to overall higher ...

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