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The blue of sapphires is produced by the elements titanium and iron that are both present. There is a process called charge transfer causing the transfer of an electron between Ti$^{4+}$ and Fe$^{2+}$ to Ti$^{3+}$ and Fe$^{3+}$ to fit together with the Al$^{3+}$ of the corundum lattice. Those ions give the blue sapphire its colour. Note that the ions in a ...


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