44

Forget about the apple seeds, they contain about 1 to 4 mg amygdalin per gramm seeds (DOI). Instead, collect apricot seeds during the right season, the amygdalin content varies though the year and can be as high as 5% of the dry weight of the seed (DOI). It is probably advantagenous to break the husk with a nut cracker, a plier, etc. and cut the softer inner ...


19

No, the capability to identify a compound does not imply capability to synthesize that compound. Indeed, "analysis" and "synthesis" represent two branches of chemistry, and many chemists spend years trying to synthesize compounds of known structure. Modern structure determination relies on roughly two steps. First is separation of sample mixtures into ...


15

Here's an excerpt from an interview with the author of Fight Club, Chuck Palhniuk. How to make Napalm with Frozen Orange Juice and Gasoline? Well, Ed Norton changed one ingredient in every one to make them useless. So, that really pissed me off because I really research those really well. Actually its styrofoam and gasoline - it make the most ...


14

With any material (or device) there are three distinct steps necessary to make a copy : Be able to identify it by its behavior and interactions. Be able to determine its structure. Identification does not tell you something's structure, just its external behavior. Develop a process to construct the material or device as a prototype at least. All that has ...


13

Honestly, you probably wouldn't be able to get this done with just a highschool chem lab, at least not to a high purity (whether or not this is needed is debatable; in fact it could be interesting in the story because it would give a clue as to how it was produced, whereas pure cyanide wouldn't really tell the detective much). Having said that, apples don't ...


8

According to several sources online the chemical weapon used in the failed assissination of Mashal was levofentanyl. This Wikipedia article states: On September 25, 1997, Mashal was injected in the ear with a toxin (thought to have been a derivative of the synthetic opiate Fentanyl called Levofentanyl). Another source reads: In September 1997, an ...


7

According to this Wikipedia article, there has been military research into nano-thermite, which can contain molybdenum, bismuth or tungsten oxides. It would be possible to test for residues of those after the fire. Also, "nano-thermite" sounds awesome!


6

Some nerve gases are very simple chemicals so it is likely that the instructions are real. This, however, isn't the point. They are very hard to make without killing yourself in the process and acquiring the ingredients is often very hard as governments restrict the supply and monitor uses very carefully. Even research scientists in approved facilities may ...


6

So, my question is, if the UK Chemical Weapons Institute can carry out such a chemical analysis and figure out what chemical weapon was used, does it mean that they themselves own this technology? Ok, first. Performing elemental chemical analysis does not give you a single idea if you can produce compound you analyzed. Knowing it structure does not ...


5

Just chemistry here. Chemists do not need to be already able to synthesize a molecule to identify it. All they need is a reference, either as physical sample or as collection of chemical and physical data. In both cases is irrelevant how these were obtained. There is no way to identify the producer of an isolated molecule. Multidimensional analysis (...


4

The original meaning of napalm referred only to the thickener, not the flammable substance which it thickens, and not the mixture of the two. The aluminum soaps of this mixture of acids was christened "napalm" from "nap" for napthenic acids and "palm" for the coconut fatty acids. Quoting from the 1951 article They Don't Like "Hell Bombs"; Napalm + ...


4

A standard protocol after unintended chemical exposure is to quickly douse the victim in large quantities of water to wash away chemicals that could remain and cause further harm, such as powders and other types of solids that could spread over your body as you moved. Also, the water will dilute any chemicals to the point of least harm that soak into ...


4

Nerve agents are usually susceptible to hydrolysis leading to non-toxic degradation products Most modern nerve agents are based on fluorophosphonate cores. That is they contain a $\ce{PFO(OR)(X)}$ core where R is some organic radical (-iPr in sarin) and X can be a range of radicals (Me- in sarin, OR or N=R in novichok agents). Most are not very stable in ...


3

Lacking additional information, answers likely will be speculation-based only. To mention a few factors to consider: Stating GC-MS analysis only states, that there is technique to separate compounds by different rate of retention over a stationary phase (gas chromatography, GC) combined (a.k.a. hyphenated) with an other technique to analyze fractions ...


3

According to Fragmentation pathways and structural characterization of organophosphorus compounds related to the Chemical Weapons Convention by electron ionization and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 2016, 30, 2585–2593: N-[Bis(dimethylamino)methylidene]-P-methylphosphonamidic fluoride (3) was synthesized ...


2

In a very similar video I found, some gentlemen microwave gasoline, the flammable component of napalm, along with aluminium foil. The aluminium sparks when exposed to the microwaves, igniting the gasoline vapors in the microwave. Once all the vapor in the microwave is combusted, the microwave must then once again fill with gasoline vapor. When it once again ...


1

There is really more than one question here: one is whether identifying a chemical requires the ability to make it; the other is whether the UK can reliably identify Russia as the manufacturer of the nerve agent. The first question has a simple answer: there are plenty of known chemical structures that chemists don't know how to make, yet. This is common in ...


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