7 votes
Accepted

Total Differential of Chemical Potential

$$dG=VdP-SdT-\sum{\mu_in_i}$$So, $$\frac{\partial G}{\partial P}=V$$and $$\frac{\partial G}{\partial n_i}=\mu_i$$So, $$\frac{\partial^2 G}{\partial n_i \partial P}=\frac{\partial^2 G}{\partial P\...
Chet Miller's user avatar
  • 13.3k
6 votes
Accepted

CO2 Catalytic Converter

Unfortunately this is not feasible Current catalytic converters are designed to remove noxious pollutants from exhausts. Things like carbon monoxide (poisonous) and nitrogen oxides (noxious and ...
matt_black's user avatar
  • 36.1k
5 votes

What meaning does Gibbs energy acquire when applied to solutions?

Gibbs energy (also called free enthalpy) and it's change in context of isothermal and isobaric processes have two major meanings: It is the hard limit for maximum non-expansion work the system (or it ...
Poutnik's user avatar
  • 41.5k
5 votes
Accepted

how to obtain potential curves from database?

The RKR method determines the classical turning points $r_{\pm}$ of the potential energy based on knowing experimentally determined spectroscopic constants. ( Rydberg, 1931, Z. Physik. v73,376, Klein, ...
porphyrin's user avatar
  • 30.5k
3 votes

Question on Nernst equation

Let assume the classical representative of cells – the Daniell's cell: $$\ce{Zn(s)}|\ce{ZnSO4(aq)}||\ce{CuSO4(aq)}|\ce{Cu(s)}$$ \begin{align} E_\mathrm{cell} &= \Delta E^{\circ} + \frac{RT}{nF} \...
Poutnik's user avatar
  • 41.5k
3 votes

Why is electrochemical potential defined as sum of electrical potential and apparent electrical potential energy?

The chemical potential of a substance $i$ in a system is generally defined in relation to the Gibbs energy differential: $$\mathrm{d}G = \left( \frac{\partial G}{\partial n_i} \right)_{T,p}\mathrm{d}...
Poutnik's user avatar
  • 41.5k
2 votes

Physical significance of chemical potential and fugacity

The chemical potential is the partial derivative of the Gibbs free energy with respect to the number of moles of the specified species at constant T, P, and numbers of moles of all other species. The ...
Chet Miller's user avatar
  • 13.3k
2 votes

Thermodynamics potential and differences between them

Note that the term state function is more common that the thermodynamic potential, while both are correct. Considering $U$, $H$, $F$ and $G$ as different forms of energy may be misleading. The state ...
Poutnik's user avatar
  • 41.5k
2 votes
Accepted

If gaseous oxygen and dissolved oxygen (in water) have the same partial pressure, will they diffuse into solid materials at comparable rate?

If the air and water are in equilibrium, then che chemical potential of the oxygen in the air is equal to the chemical potential of the oxygen in the water. If either is placed in contact with your ...
Chet Miller's user avatar
  • 13.3k
2 votes

How to experimentally determine the chemical potential of salt water?

A simple aqueous salt solution contains water and salt. One does not generally discuss the "chemical potential of a solution" but rather that of the individual components. Chemical potential ...
Buck Thorn's user avatar
  • 21.7k
2 votes
Accepted

Do high-energy chemical bonds indicate strong chemical bonds?

There are two factors here to consider. First, the energy released by a given reaction is (partly) due to the difference between the bond strength in the product vs reactant, not the absolute bond ...
Andrew's user avatar
  • 10.3k
2 votes

Is equilibrium point for a coupled equilibria of arbitary number of coupled reactions is a unique point?

One of the first experimental demonstrations that the same equilibrium point is reached if the reaction starts with all reactants or all products was $\ce{2HI<=>I_2 + H_2}$ made by Bodenstein in ...
porphyrin's user avatar
  • 30.5k
2 votes

Equilibrium chemical potential if the population is not conserved?

This question is either confused or simply confusing. The concept of equilibrium implies reactant and products and energy interacting so that everything remains constant and cannot be applied to a one ...
jimchmst's user avatar
  • 2,163
2 votes
Accepted

What if kc=1 will reactants concentration equals to product concentration

You reasoning is correct, $K_c = 1$ doesn't necessarily mean the reactant and product concentrations are equal. Consider a general reaction: $$ \sum_ir_i\ce{R}_i \ce{->} \sum_jp_j\ce{P}_j $$ The ...
ananta's user avatar
  • 2,299
1 vote

What exactly happens in a Chemical Potential Energy Graph?

It is just potential energy: the potential energy needed for the reaction to happen. This potential energy obviously needs to come from somewhere, and that's where kinetic energy comes in. If the ...
Szgoger's user avatar
  • 284
1 vote
Accepted

How to apply a certain voltage vs SHE

You have to use 3-electrode system, with 2 power electrodes and the SHE as the reference electrode. The problem is that if you apply the external voltage 3 V on both power electrodes, their potential ...
Poutnik's user avatar
  • 41.5k
1 vote

Equilibrium chemical potential if the population is not conserved?

At equilibrium, the number of each species is constant. So if a molecule falls appart into two fragments, these fragments would recombine at the same rate. Thermodynamics is for looking at bulk ...
Karsten's user avatar
  • 40.2k
1 vote
Accepted

Enthalpy in the van't Hoff equation

Good question. Enthalpy of reaction dependence on temperature is given by Kirchoff's equation (you can check it) and it is true that enthalpy of reaction changes with temperature. For most reactions ...
Dario Mirić's user avatar
1 vote

Ordered and random energy

Consider the ability to predict something in a detailed manner as synonymous with "ordered", and the inability synonymous with "random". For instance, a perfect crystalline solid ...
Buck Thorn's user avatar
  • 21.7k
1 vote

Physical significance of chemical potential and fugacity

In less mathematical terms, the chemical potential of a component in a mixture at a specific temperature and pressure is the amount of free energy that can be ascribed to one mole of that component ...
Buck Thorn's user avatar
  • 21.7k
1 vote

Chemical potential and gibbs free energy

There are at least two fundamental issues you have to address. First, you have to distinguish between the Gibbs energy $G$ and the Gibbs energy of reaction $\Delta_r G$. In you diagram, one is the ...
Karsten's user avatar
  • 40.2k
1 vote
Accepted

Chemical potential and gibbs free energy

I can't see what you did in your derivation, but, for what it's worth, here's my derivation. My starting equations are $$G=\sum{n_i\mu_i}$$and, along your contour, at constant temperature and pressure,...
Chet Miller's user avatar
  • 13.3k

Only top scored, non community-wiki answers of a minimum length are eligible