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The instability of a vinyl cation cannot be blamed on its sp2 orbital being very electronegative as the positive charge resides in a p orbital, not an sp2 orbital. The instability derives from the inability of that p orbital to overlap with the the sp2 orbitals of the carbon on the other end of the double bond. The bond angles of that carbon are too large (...

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No. It does not. In order to understand this, you need to have this basic knowledge of the kinetics of multistep reactions In chemical kinetics, there are two ways to deal with multiple-step mechanisms Rate determining step method- Here one specific step is the slowest. So we consider all steps after this step to be equally fast. The rate-determining ...

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In order to understand this, you need to have this basic knowledge of the kinetics of multistep reactions In chemical kinetics, there are two ways to deal with multiple-step mechanisms Rate determining step method- Here one specific step is the slowest. So we consider all steps after this step to be equally fast. The rate-determining step is the slowest ...

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Hydrochloric Acid ($\ce{HCl}$) reacts in the same way, although often Zinc (II) chloride (a Lewis acid) is added to help compensate for the lower nucleophilicity of chloride ion. The mixture of $\ce{HCl}$ and $\ce{ZnCl2}$ is called the Lucas Reagent. Secondary and tertiary alcohols react via the $\mathrm{S_N1}$ mechanism with the Lucas reagent. The \$\ce{...

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