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My teacher says that while comparing the stability of the species concerned, we should remember that stability provided by Resonance>hyper conjugation>inductive effect. Of course there are exceptions(like in the case of chloro benzene where according to resonance the ring should be activated but inductive effect dominates it and the ring gets ...

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The $\mathrm{S_N1}$ reaction has two steps i) the formation of carbocation and 2) the formation of product. (image taken from libretexts) In the second step an unstable carbocation reacts with the nucleophile. You are asking why this step has to have an activation energy. You can rationalize that by considering the principle of microscopic reversibility. ...

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Order of stability: 3 > 2 > 1 > 4 I would say that the third structure is the most stable (least reactive) as an octet-complete resonance structure of it exists which is much more stable that the initial carbocation. This is basically what you said, the carbocation is stabilized due to the electron donation tendency of the nitrogen atom in this case....

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