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The concept of hybridization probably over-simplifies reality, see for example this question: Bond angles in NH3 and NCl3 Both suggestions for hybridization therefore should be understood as extreme cases and the truth is often enough somewhere in between. The question therefore could be: Is the nitrogen atom in nitrogen chloride closer to sp3 or sp2 ...

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The important thing to consider is the chemistry of carbon dioxide in water, forming carbonic acid. Note also that calcium hydroxide is at edge between being a strong or a weak base. \begin{align}\ \ce{CO2 ^ + H2O &<=> CO2 . H2O} \tag{1} \\ \ce{CO2 . H2O &<=> H2CO3} \tag{2} \\ \ce{H2CO3 &<=> H+ + HCO3^-} \tag{3} \\ \ce{HCO3^- ...

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Its true that overlap of 2p - 2p >2s-2p > 2s - 2s due to p's directional bond. But 1s-1s >1s-2p >2p-2p , because as size inncreases extent of ovelap decreases which means here 2 opposite factors act in which size factor wins. But the thing is whn carbon makes bond with H its orbital overlapping with it is not pure p rather sp3, sp2 or sp. Infact C always ...

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Also relevant: the nitrogen-chlorine bond lengths: $\ce{NOCl}=196\text{ pm}$ Wikipedia $\ce{NCl3}=176\text{ pm}$ Wikipedia The oxygen in nitrosyl chloride is donating its lone pair to the antibonding orbital in the nitrogen-chlorine linkage, weakening that bond but adding more pi bonding between nitrogen and oxygen to become like a triple bond. If we ...

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We know that fluorine ($\ce{F}$) is more electronegative than chlorine ($\ce{Cl}$). Therefore, -I effect (Inductive Effect) of $\ce{F}$ would be more and trifluoromethane ($\ce{CHF3}$) would be more acidic. But this is not the case. As -M (Mesomeric Effect) effect also plays an important role in determining the acidity. We also know that -M is considered ...

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You should probably be cautious in general applying the concept of bond dipoles to predict molecular dipole moments, and it does seem ad hoc if not downright flimflam to invoke a dipole to the nitrogen lone pair to predict dipole moments in the examples you present (particularly in the case of nitrogen trifluoride). Now if you read the wikipedia page on ...

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