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3

The −C≡C− is normally drawn as linear about each C atom as that is what is found in nature for most alkyne x-ray crystal structures. We can use hybridization theory to explain this as the C atoms would be expected to adopt an sp hybridization, which gives two hybrid orbitals along the axis of the p orbital hybridized with the s to make the sp hybrids: https:...


5

Triple bond in carbon means that the carbon atom is sp hybridized. sp hybridized carbon has the two bonded groups at 180 to each other. Therefore it is displayed linearly which is closest to the actual structure. Single and double bonds are at an angle of nearly 109.5 and 120 degree therefore are not drawn linearly.


1

I have been teaching my students the same shortcut by AbhigyanC, but expressed a bit differently. Using the same symbols: LP = (V-M-I)/2 where LP = No. of lone pairs on central atom V = No. valence electrons brought by central atom M = No. of hydrogens or halogens bonded to the central atom I = Charge of the species It is a rearrangement of the formal ...


6

You can define the size of atoms and molecules in various ways. You can, for instance, derive a measure of the size of a hydrogen molecule from the density of solid hydrogen: Solid hydrogen has a density of 0.086 g/cm3 making it one of the lowest-density solids. From the above you can derive an effective radius for $\ce{H2}$ of $\pu{2.10 Å}$, which is ...


0

I have a feeling that looking at the question from the perspective of evolutionary biochemistry is more important than looking at it from purely bonding model perspective. Cis fatty acids tend to have lower melting and boiling points than saturated fatty acids. The cis geometry puts a "kink" or bend in the chain which makes efficient packing difficult, ...


3

The answer should be C. One way would be to write the thermochemical equations, however since we just want to compare, we can do it without going into that. The formation of the H-Cl bond, (like all bonds) is exothermic. And the breaking of the C-H, N-H and O-H bonds is endothermic (since their formation is exothermic too). Since the contribution of the H-...


0

My question rather concerns if electrons are ever lost or gained naturally. Electron Capture In the natural radioactive decay process known as electron capture the nucleus captures an inner-shell electron, K- or sometimes L-shell. This results in a proton being converted to an electron, and the emission of a neutrino. The atom has lost an electron, but ...


0

I'm not too familiar with resonance theory, but I'll try: According to modern VBT, the general idea is that the state of the molecule is not described by a single state wave function, but rather a linear combination ("superposition" if you will) of multiple different state wave functions. In your particular case, the resonance is between a "dominant" ...


-1

So most of this has been answered, but the main elements that can bond to themselves are called diatomic atoms. This includes hydrogen, nitrogen, fluorine, oxygen, iodine, chlorine, and bromine. There are other elements that can do this as well, however these main elements occur naturally in their diatomic state as gases.


1

No, carbon is not the only one that can bond to itself. It's a unique property of some elements mainly the group 14 elements like silicon, germanium, arsenic etc. This phenomenon is called catenation. It might be mainly due to presence of four valence electrons in their outermost shell. A large number of carbon atoms are linked with each other with sigma and ...


12

Is carbon the only element that can do this? No, carbon is not the only element with such characteristics. If not, then what are the other elements can also do this? There is a whole number of elements such as silicon, arsenic, germanium. Is there a term to describe such elements? At least I'm unaware of such a term, which might be furnished by our ...


4

The dilithium dimer exists- but it isn’t particularly common, and we usually only see it in the gas phase. Essentially, the 2s electrons interact and form a bonding orbital. (s-p mixing is particularly pronounced here, but I presume you don’t know MO Theory.) Due to the diffuse nature of lithium’s atomic orbitals, the bonding is pretty weak (Wikipedia ...


0

Online values of the boiling points indicate a greater bond strength in $\ce{H2O2}$. The boiling point of water is $\pu{100 ^\circ C}$ while that of hydrogen peroxide is about $\pu{150 ^\circ C}$. Here is a list of factors that might contribute to this difference (adapted from source) Stronger dispersion forces in $\ce{H2O2}$ (larger molar mass) Higher ...


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