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1

All compounds have electrovalent bonds between the metal and the anion (sulfate or chloride). All have covalent bonds between O and H in the water molecules. All have coordinate bonds with water around the metal. And A, B, and C have hydrogen bonds between the inner and the outer water molecules.


1

The order you provided describes the decreasing bond strength not reactivity. Bond strength of R-X decreases from Fluorine to Iodine as the orbitals become more diffuse and effectiveness of overlap decreases. Hence, due to the ineffective overlap, the covalent bond strength is weaker I believe the reactivity of alkyl halides should be R-I > R-Br > R-Cl ...


2

There is no simple and general relationship between valency and oxidation number. Look at the example of Oxygen. It depends of experimental evidences. Oxygen has always valency $2$. But it has an oxidation number equal to $-2$ in the vast majority of its compounds, like water $\ce{H2O}$ or $\ce{CO2}$. It can also be at oxidation number $-1$ in $\ce{H2O2}$, ...


6

Hydrogen does form ionic bonds. Although not as bare $\ce{H+}$, it can form ionic bonds in the form of $\ce{H-}$ (hydride anion). $\ce{H-}$ forms ionic bonds with alkali metal ions and alkaline earth metal ions (except $\ce{Be^{2+}}$). These type of ionic compounds formed by hydride ion are called saline hydrides, as they are salt type. These hydrides like ...


0

All above answers are correct but I want to add a very rare exception and tell me in comments if I am incorrect (I am interested in that too!). According to molecular orbital theory molecular orbital diagram of $\ce{B2}$ is Clearly $\ce{B2}$ forms 1 $\pi$-bond without any $\sigma$ bond. Source


-1

Since the OP is talking about a VB-based approach to describing the bonding in ferrocene, I'm going to ignore any purely MO-based tactics in this answer. Ferrocene is made by combining two cyclopentadienide anions and one ferrous cation. Each cyclopentadienide anion has one lone pair(which actually corresponds to a Hückel bonding orbital; still writing "...


4

Multicentre bonds like these (in this case, a 3-centre-2-electron or '3c2e' bond) are pretty fascinating and there is a lot of theoretical work that goes on to understand these. I am a chemist as well, and had to go through learning Wade's rules and all of that. There will be a time for an answer such as that. But for now I want to post a very, very, simple ...


1

There seems to be a confusion in this demand. The atomic orbitals may combine if they have the same energy and if they belong to the same atom. This is the way hybrid orbitals are introduced. But this is not valid for atomic orbitals belonging to different atoms. The $1s$ orbital of hydrogen can combine with a $3p$ orbital from chlorine, or with a $4p$ ...


1

It is correct that the $\ce{N}$ with the double bond has a localized lone pair, because of its $sp^2$ hybridization, due to which the lone pairs are in the same plane as ring, and hence not conjugated. However, the other $\ce{N}$ is clearly in conjugation, hence, if you draw the $5$ possible resonance structures, you would notice that each bond in the ring ...


3

When considering bond angles of molecules of main group ($\ce{\angle A-X-B}$) there are several different factors to consider: The row of the the central atom $\ce{X}$ determines the energy difference between the valence s and p orbital, which determines the extent of mixing (or hybridisation if you wish) The sizes of A and B, because steric repulsion, A ...


0

Bond strength is not clearly defined. One may say that polar bonds are stronger because of the coulomb forces involved, but they are soluble in water etc, so the bond can be easily broken, whereas nonpolar bonds cannot be broken so easily although the forces in play are much weaker. So, the question remains as the definition of "bond strength" is ...


1

If two identical atoms are bound in a covalence, the center of gravity (barycentre) of the bonding electrons is exactly in the middle of the distance between the two nucleus. The atoms are not charged. If two different atoms are bound in an ionic bond, the center of gravity of the electrons are exactly situated on one of the nucleus. This atom is charged, or ...


3

$\mathrm p$π-$\mathrm d$π bonding is very weak and normally not considered to be very effective in bonding. Rather, the bonding can be explained via ionic bonding instead due to the large electronegativity differences. This can be seen in siloxanes and trisilylamine. According to J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1980, 102 (24), 7241–7244 Since our ab initio calculations ...


-4

$\ce{H-O-F}$ has a lower bond angle than both $\ce{F-S-F}$ and $\ce{F-O-F}$. The reason is probably that the lower electron density around $\ce{H}$ results in significantly less steric interaction between $\ce{H}$ and the lone pairs of the $\ce{F}$ atom. In both $\ce{SF2}$ and$\ce{ OF2}$, the two $\ce{F}$ atoms with high electron densities would tend to ...


-4

I looked up the net and found the following order- HOF(97.2°)<SF2(98°)<OF2(103°) (Of course, the values might not be exact but this is what I found on the net.) Now, my POV- Yes, your analogy that bond angle of OF2> SF2 is correct. It's a direct result of Drago's Rule. The electron cloud in OF2 will be shifted much towards the Fluorine atom. Bond ...


0

In a sense, you can increase and decrease flow through an osmotic filter with electricity. The process is called electro-osmosis. This can even be used to create a pressure differential in the electroosmotic pump.


1

I think here you are missing the point on what exactly a HOMO and a LUMO are. They are descriptions of the energy splitting that occurs when quantum wave functions constructively, or destructively, interfere with eachother when in proximity. Because this system is not conjugated, the alkene and the carbonyl with both INDIVIDUALLY have their own HOMO and ...


1

Since a polymer is a "molecule of high relative molecular mass, the structure of which essentially comprises the multiple repetition of units derived, actually or conceptually, from molecules of low relative molecular mass." (IUPAC Gold Book) joining two monomers into a dimer is just a specific wording for the more general term polymer like it is ...


0

Fundamentally, it depends on how you put a three-dimensional structure onto a 2D surface. The Valence Shell Electron Repulsion (VSEPR) model can predict the structure of most molecules. Because electrons repel each other electrostatically, the most stable arrangement of electron groups (i.e., the one with the lowest energy) is the one that minimizes ...


-1

The counter question that might help you rule this out is: "Which 3s orbital?" Note that atomic Nitrogen doesn't have a 3s orbital as N itself belongs to the 2nd period(n=2). Also note that in hybridization, Atomic orbitals of same or almost similar energies intermix to form same number of new Hybrid orbitals of same shap and equivalent energy. ...


3

It would be interesting to know the sources cited in your question (both the book, as well as the primary literature) as reference because one complementary approach to the (assumed) spectroscopic determination is the analysis of the crystalline state. While there are multiple records about pure benzene, it seems there is no public model of the crystalline ...


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