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The issue is the radius of the atoms. The bigger they get the farther away is that electron from the nucleus so the attraction force is smaller, and they get more reactive. On the other hand, the bigger radius of the atom also keeps it further away from the counter ion, which weakens that bond too. So in a way it is the same effect! The "bond" to the ...


All ready answered, but I will give the distilled version: Zn and Cd are most commonly found in the +2 OX State (d10) and can not metal-metal bond in this state. +1 OX state is possible for these elements but is rare due to there low ionization energies, but they do form metal-metal bonds in the +1 OX state. Hg has relatively high ionization energy due to ...


The paragraph you cite does not define Bent's rule (see What is Bent's rule?, Utility of Bent's Rule - What can Bent's rule explain that other qualitative considerations cannot?). If you compare $\ce{H3CCl}$ and $\ce{F3CCl}$, then the $\ce{C-H}$ bond has less carbon-p character than an idealised sp³ orbital, while the $\ce{C-F}$ bond will have more carbon-...


The case 1 has partial double bond character (due to resonance) while case 2 has total double bond character of the C-O bond. So, relative to case 2, the C-O bond length in case 1 is longer.


Very interesting question! Let's start with the nitrogens in hydrazine being approximately sp2-p hybridized, flat. The p orbitals on each nitrogen would overlap in a double bond configuration - but the "double bond" has four electrons, two from each nitrogen. If you consider a molecular orbital, the bonding AND the antibonding orbitals are filled, so the net ...


In general, in a single bond, there is involvement of sigma bonds only. In double bonds, there is also overlap between pi orbitals. More is the overlap shorter will be the distance between the atoms.

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