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5

It's a bit more involved than that; after all, the fluorine atom also has one of its electrons "moving down". The key is to look at the occupied MOs and to determine whether they are mainly hydrogen-based, or fluorine-based (i.e., which atom contributes more to the MO). This is actually not trivial to determine at all, and in general, the ...


4

Three oxygen atoms in a row is more common than one might think. In the first stage of the reaction between alkenes and ozone, the ozone is attached to both ends of the double bond to form an intermediate with a five-membered ring (a molozonide). This ring contains the three oxygen atoms still in a row, before it breaks up: (image source) In addition, ionic ...


3

Molecular orbital theory gives a good explanation of why metals have free electrons The best way to explain why metals have "free" electrons requires a trek into the theory of how chemical bonds form. Molecular orbital theory, or, at least, a simple view of it (a full explanation requires some fairly heavy quantum stuff that won't add much to the ...


3

I'll specifically answer this part of your question: I would expect 50% of collisions in a gas of free hydrogen atoms to have up spins, and 50% to have down spins. So, on average, any given pair of hydrogen atoms are equally likely to either have parallel or antiparallel spins. Does this imply that only 50% of H–H collisions in that situation result in a ...


2

I think the premise of your question is flawed, which isn't your fault. It's the way students are introduced to quantum mechanics at the intro level. But if you could somehow generate a gas phase of free hydrogen atoms, it isn't correct to say that 50% would have "up" electron spin and 50% "down." What is correct is that if you measured ...


1

It is just a matter of energy of a single photon. Heterolytic cleavage of a symmetric bond requires more energy and can be less brobable, but see the totalitarian principle. E.g. the extreme UV (tens of eV per photon) can indiscriminately cleave any chemical bond both homolytically and heterolytically.


1

In crystals, hexokinase is able to bind to ATP (or ADP or AMP-PNP) in the absence off glucose. It has a miniscule ATPase activity (40,000 times slower than the hexokinase activity. Source: https://febs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/j.1432-1033.1970.tb01075.x The two pieces of evidence combined show that ATP does not "have to wait" for ...


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