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6

I agree in part with Mithoron and MaxW's comments: these are different molecules, not even sharing a mutual atom (e.g. C-O vs C-C), so direct comparison is restricted. However, Pauling's concept of electronegativity does explain why, in general, the heteronuclear A-B bond is stronger than the average of the homonuclear A-A and B-B bonds. the difference in ...


3

They're for the entire bond (so for a triple bond, all 3). From Wikipedia, it can be defined as The standard enthalpy change when [a bond, be it single, double, or triple] is cleaved by homolysis to give fragments A and B, which are usually radical species So you get two fragments as your final state.


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This question has a few different parts to it. Part 1 - what's that peak at 3.6ppm? Well, it's not the -OH peak. The peak at 3.6 is from the CH(OH). Part 2 - where is the -OH peak if that isn't it at 3.6ppm? Peaks from labile protons are frequently not observed, and have variable chemical shifts, unless great care is taken in sample preparation. This ...


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The unsaturated regions are electron-rich and typically allow for electrophilic attack, such as by halogens or protons. Saturated hydrocarbons usually react only with radicals (radical halogenation). C-H activation is often hard in saturated hydrocarbons. While double and triple bonds are stronger than a single bond when looking at complete cleavage of a ...


2

When a substance is made of molecules, these molecules are made of atoms being strongly attached to one another. But a given molecule is not attached to its neighbor by strong bonds. On the contrary, they are attached by so-called van der Waals forces, which are rather weak. If you heat such a substance, the van der Waals forces are easy to destroy, and the ...


2

Both are correct: for $\ce{Cl-}$, the inner set of electrons would be implicit, as $\ce{Cl}$ has 17 electrons. The point of drawing these orbital diagrams, especially in a molecular context, is to show the nature of bonds and to show how the octet/duplet rules are being followed. If you have difficulties in using the second diagram (finding it harder to ...


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A possible real-world example of directional force use may be apparent from the commercial application of so-called magnetizers (see discussion here). I once experimented with a small inexpensive one and it appears to accelerate select reactions. A commercial example for reducing the amount of chlorinating agent required in public swimming pools in ...


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