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Be aware that $\ce{H+}$ is nothing else then a proton $^1_1\mathrm{p}$. Protons have an extreme charge density, typically $10^{15}$ higher than any other ion ( but bare electrons or atomic nuclei). Protons can exist free in vacuum or plasma, but even in gases they quickly react with many gaseous molecules, forming molecular ions, like dioxidanylium $\ce{O2 +... 3 Here is the meaning of the words ""vulnerable attack" and "negative region of space". The nucleus of the six atoms (2 C and 4 H) are situated in the same plane, which is usually defined as horizontal. The electrons of the 4 H atoms and the three first electrons from each Carbon atom are all together included in sigma bonds, and their ... 3 To complete your literature survey, include this publication cited at least 11 times so far: «Dichlorotrifluorophosphorane (PCl2F3): molecular structure by gas-phase electron diffraction and quadratic force field» by French et al. in Inorg. Chem. 1985, 24, 2774–2777, doi 10.1021/ic00212a014. Despite the paywall, ACS's «In lieu of an abstract, this is the ... 2 I can't present you a movie of electron interactions, but maybe a fuzzy picture. Imagine a metal body (start with copper): the atoms are held in a solid structure - in a sea of electrons! Those loose electrons can be pushed around easily, so we can make wires out of copper and transmit electricity thru them. If you put two different metals together, the sea &... 2 Bond angle is largely governed by the location of electron cloud with regard to atoms in a molecule. In dichlorine monoxide, the electron cloud is more spread out between oxygen and chlorine while in the water molecule it’s much closer to the oxygen atom. Therefore, the net bond paid-bond pair repulsion is higher in dichlorine monoxide than in water, while ... 2 If we try to answer this question at a rather simple level, we could say that yes the ions can exist in a particle-free environment like vacuum. But if ions are formed in an aqueous medium, like the H+ ions in acidified water then the H+ readily combines with H2O to form hydronium ion. Which means that the H+ is not stable but since it can't combine with ... 2 First, let's get to the root of this problem, then I'll double back to your question. We are asked which of the two compounds is most acidic. As a side note there are various definitions of acidity, but note that broadly these theories describe acidity as linked to propensity to accept electron pairs in some form rather than general instability. Considering ... 1 I assume you mean from the classical electrodynamics side only, not from quantum electrodynamics side. By the former, even H atom cannot exist, as the electron would fall along a spiral curve on the nucleus, continually emitting radiation being radially accelerated. For a hydrogen molecule, both electrons move around both protons, they are not dedicated to ... 1 So the diagram your referring to is called a Fischer projection and represents the non-cyclic form of glucose (usually when glucose is in the presence of water, it reacts to form it’s cyclic structure). When looking at the Fischer projection, take note of the four carbons in the middle of the linear structure. These are chiral carbon atoms. The way the other ... 1 So fluorine does have the ability to hydrogen bond. However, they are usually transient and depend significantly on the species that is donating the H-bond along with some other factors (i.e. what phase the molecules are in, temperature, etc...) Fluorine is so electronegative that it holds its electrons much "tighter" then other atoms, making it a ... 1 According to (1) and (2), the values in your table would be as follows (all values in Å): $$\begin{array}{c c c} & \ce{PF4Cl} & \ce{PF3Cl2} \\ \ce{P-F_{eq}} & 1.541 & 1.546 \\ \ce{P-Cl_{eq}} & 1.999 & 2.004 \\ \end{array}$$ we have$x < y$and$a < b\$, which means that (b) is the correct answer According to Bent's rule: atomic ...