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6

Simple answer: Almost. It is nearly that case that all the valence electrons of the $\ce{CsF(g)}$ monomer can be considered as lone pairs. At high temperatures you can have gas-phase salt monomers, i.e., single molecules of $\ce{MX(g)}$, where M is a metal ion and X is a non-metal ion (e.g., $\ce{NaCl(g)}$). [See: Gas-Phase Dimerization of Sodium Halides and ...


4

The dissociation energies are different because bonds don't all break at once Most chemical processes happen step by step. Even in simple molecules like methane where there are only 4 bonds, bond dissociation almost always occurs stepwise. The implication of this is that you would not expect each step to involve the same energy (and this applies whatever ...


4

Assume we are given a configuration of atoms $\{{\bf r_i}\}$ and any other data required to characterise the atomic layout, e.g. any lattice vectors if we have periodic boundary conditions in any of the 3 possible directions. With each of the atoms let us associate a property that can be characterised by a scalar quantity $\{p_i\}$. For example $p_i=1 \...


2

Premise: in spite of my comment, which I leave posted for reference, I've decided that I was overthinking about the reasons that lead OP pose the question and that is better to answer to what is certainly asked. However, after having tentatively edited the title to reflect what the text deals with, I must amend the question at two points: 1 - "compounds ...


1

According to VSEPR theory, the bond angles in case of CH3Cl and CH3Br is based on bond pair - bond pair repulsion only as there are no lone pairs in them. The bond pair electrons are spread within the bond distance between the bonded atoms. The bond distance for C-Br bond (1.934 A°) is larger than the C-Cl bond (1.781 A°) and also there is not effective ...


1

Ionic character means that there is some degree of charge separation, as in standard covalent bonds between atoms of different electronegativity, and even more so due to the mechanism of bond formation. At an entry level, and I would say even at more advanced level, a formed dative bond is just a covalent bond, albeit a polar - often very polar - one. You ...


1

In figures 2, it looks like you're saying the sigma of the C-F will be donating into the sigma* of the C-H, and that causes stabilization. However, a C-F sigma bond is a much poorer donor than a C-H due to the high electronegativity. Since there is little to no donation actually occurring in 2 (or 4, for the matter) those interactions are much less relevant ...


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