# Questions tagged [bond]

For questions about chemical bonds (ionic/covalent/etc.), their properties (length, energy, angle, etc.) or their relation to other molecular properties (intermolecular forces/dipole moment/etc.). Do not confuse this tag with [lewis-structures], [dipole], [intermolecular-forces], etc.

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### Do anti binding orbitals exist or are they imaginary? [closed]

Do the anti bonding orbitals exist or are they like a hypothetical thing? Do they exist at the same time of bonding orbitals and they are just not occupied by electrons?
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### bonding in polar covalent bonds

I have recently learned that pure ionic and covalent bonds are just the extremes of a spectrum of bonds from this article from Chemguide. But I can't seem to square this with my understanding of how ...
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### Backbonding in phosphorous pentoxide

I read this today in a book that $\ce{P=O}$ in $\ce{P4O10}$ consists of a coordinate bond and pπ-dπ backbonding, but why does this happen? Can't phosphorus share its lone pair with one of the lone ...
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### Which of the following has a stronger hydrogen bonding: F-H- -O or F-H- -F?

I thought of two approaches to solve this question . Since the electronegativity of Oxygen is lower than Fluorine it would be a better donor than Fluorine to the electron deficient Hydrogen . Another ...
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### What is exposed in the surface tension of water?

(I guess) I understand the covalent bonding of water and the hydrogen bonding of water between two different molecules, but I would like to know which part is the part that that exposes itself to the ...
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### Why do atoms on the periodic table have the number of valence electrons that they do?

I'm studying year 11 and am learning about valence electrons and how these electrons drive intermolecular bonds. What I have not been able to find an explanation to is why all the elements on the ...
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### Dipole moments of cis and gem alkenes [duplicate]

The procedure for comparing dipole moments for cis- and trans-alkenes is quite easy, but how to compare dipole moments of 1,1 dichloroethene (1); and cis-dichloroethene (2)? My teacher told me that ...
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### How to bond polymer to polymer (TPU on PMMA)

I wanted to bond TPU films to PMMA slab. I have tried thermal bonding but it is was not practical(I do not know why?). Can anyone please give me a method to bound them? Thanks
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### why does lithium fluoride have a higher lattice energy than lithium iodide?

Based on my knowledge, lattice energy is proportional to the multiplcation of the charge of the ions, divided by the sum of the radius of ions, as follows. Since iodide has a larger radius than ...
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### what is the graphic difference between ionic and covalent bonds?

Reading my chemistry 101 again I can not find a graphical difference between an ionic bond (gaining-losing and electron) and a covalent bond (sharing) an electron when I try to think of the orbits/...
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### Aspartic acid conjugate base acidity

Question Which hydrogen among the four in the conjugate base of aspartic acid is most acidic? Answer My attempt I am confused between Hb and Hc I know Hd has $\mathrm pK_\mathrm a \approx 9$, so ...
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### How do you know what elements will bond in a reaction? [closed]

I know all about the types of reactions, synthesis, decomp. etc., but when a bond is broken, how do you know that the free element will bond to another molecule? Is it because that element has a ...
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### What is the hybridisation of the bridging oxygen atoms in the borax anion?

Below is a neat looking borax anion. While exploring the molecule in a computer simulation (Gaussian 16, level of theory: HF/3-21G), I found that the oxygen atoms in the 8-membered outer ring had sp2 ...
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### How is bond angle of a molecule measured?

Simply, how are (average?) bond angles for simple (or complex) molecules such as methane or ethene measured (determined)? I'm guessing that X Ray crystallography can be used to determine bond angles ...
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### Calculation of rupture force in a covalent bond

Is there any way to theoretically or mathematically calculate the rupture force of a covalent bond? One of the articles I saw said that it is the maximum derivative of the potential energy curve. Is ...
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### What is the hybridisation in HCN molecule?

According to VSEPR theory hybridisation of the central atom should be sp. However, my teacher says that there exists a near-100% s-character in the carbon orbital that bonds with hydrogen due to some ...
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### Hypervalency of orthonitrate

I have always believed that it is impossible for the atoms of period 2 elements (when they are the central atoms in polyatomic ions/molecules) to accommodate more than 8 electrons in their valence ...
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### what happens to the intramolecular bonds within water molecule during phase changes? [closed]

Does intramolecular bonds within water molecule change during phase changes?
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### Effect of magnetization on oxidation (rusting) of iron

Can magenetizing a piece of iron bar slow-down (or speed-up) the oxidation (rusting) process? In other words have any influence on it ? From what I've looked up( wikipedia, quora), it appears that the ...
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### Average energy concept

Problem When the number of electrons in bonding molecular orbitals is equal to number of electrons in anti-bonding molecular orbitals bond cannot be formed between two atoms because A) Bonding effect ...
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### Does the electron displacement effect act only on sigma electrons?

Our teacher told us that the inductive effect or the electron displacement effect can only affect the sigma electrons. I did not understand why this should be. I reasoned it can not affect the pi ...
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### Dimeric alkali metal cations?

This answer points to a reference that appears to suggest the existence of $\ce{M2^{2+}}$ ions where $\ce{M}$ is an alkali metal. How is that possible when each monomeric cation has a closed-shell, ...
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### The meaning of permanent dipole moment

I was asked in one question that which of all given molecules have a permanent dipole moment? And $\ce{XeF6}$ was given as a correct answer quoting that it is a distorted octahedral, and hence the ...
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### What is “ionic-covalent ”resonance?

Advanced Inorganic Chemistry: A Comprehensive Text on Pg. 228, Chapter 8 titled 'Boron' talks about three factors which appear to be responsible for the shortness of $\ce{B-X}$ bonds(where $\ce{X}$ is ...
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### Is the C-I bond polar?

Carbon and iodine have similar electronegativities. The reason quoted for the C-I bond having polarity is that iodine is more polarisable. But what does this actually mean? Carbon distorts the ...
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### Bond strength and length of HF and H2O

I know that acidity of an acid increases across a period (with electronegativity increase of the atom bonded to hydrogen) and hence $\ce{HF}$ is more acidic than $\ce{H2O}$ or $\ce{NH3}$. But the ...
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### Does sanding the oxide layer of a magnesium sample break bonds?

We all know that if we keep a piece of magnesium metal exposed in open air, an oxide layer forms on it. This layer prevents further oxidation of the bulk metal. If we then rub it with sand paper, the ...