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Why are hydrogen bonds in an antiparallel beta sheet stronger than those in parallel beta sheets? They are probably not. The difference is small, and depends on sequence context. Also, the diagrams do not reflect the typical conformation of the backbone in beta sheets. To complicate matters, most sheets are mixed rather than purely parallel or anti-parallel,...


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In neutral aqueous solution, the amino group is protonated (3 bound hydrogen atoms ) and the carboxilic acid group deprotonated (no bound hydrogen atom). In other solvents, you might have both groups in the neutral form the name amino acid suggests. The mechanism of peptide bond formation is complex and involves intermediates with tRNA in the cell and ...


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When Point mutations occur in one strand of DNA, irregular base-pair emerge. One of the main features of this irregular state is that the width of the double-strand differs from the standard form(usually larger width as the new, irregular base pairings are weak) in that specific area. In other words, the portion of DNA which has the defective base-pair ...


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Gypsum is the major constituent of plaster. It is non-toxic. Our lungs are capable of filtering out particles greater than 50 micrometers in diameter. Any dust finer than that is potentially dangerous.


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Glycogen phosphorylase does indeed phosphorylates the non-reducing end of a glycogen chain. It is unclear from the crystal structures how come this is an exo type enzyme. The prevailing catalytic mechanism is almost as you illustrated, involving the protonation of the $\pu{\alpha}$-1,4 link leading to the formation of a oxocarbenium ion and release of the ...


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