66

No. There are sweet, bitter, and various other salts. (Likely, there are tasteless salts too). Pure salty taste is as far as I know exclusive for table salt, though I wouldn't bet on it. Lead and Beryllium salts are said to be sweet, though toxic. Epsom salt, $\ce{MgSO4}$, is bitter. $\ce{CuSO4}$ has an incomprehensible, persistent metallic taste. (Based on ...


55

What would be the effect if someone were to drink ultra-pure, 18 M-ohm water? Not much, although if they drank many gallons of the water it could be a problem. Would they immediately die? No. Would they just need to pee more? Probably. Would $\ce{CO2}$ from the air (after the bottle is opened) and whatever's in saliva dissolve into the water ...


48

First of all, it depends on how the tap water was treated before it was piped to your house. In most cases, the water was chlorinated to remove microorganisms. By the time the water arrives at your house, there is very little (if any) chlorine left in the water. When you fill you container, there is likely to be some microorganisms present (either in the ...


41

One argument put forward has been that aluminum is very poorly bioavailable, moreso than many other elements. Aluminum oxide is very insoluble in water. In addition, any dissolved aluminum that does form in seawater is likely to be precipitated by silicic acid, forming hydroxyaluminosilicates. From Chris Exeter's 2009 article in Trends in Biochemical ...


39

I cannot think of anything in tap water that would make the water undrinkable after a couple of days already. Tagging the question with biochemistry probably points in the right direction. The only effect I can think about is growth of anaerobic microbes, e.g. Escherichia coli, causing diarrhea. There's good chance to keep the water from 'going bad' and ...


37

I will start my answer with a preface that the website linked to in the question is a pseudoscience website (and I am glad that it has vanished from the face of this earth, only accessible via the Wayback Machine). These people use scientific-sounding jargon that sounds impressive to the lay reader, but any actual scientist will know that it is simply ...


36

Saltiness is perceived when alkali metal enter taste buds. From wikipedia: Saltiness is a taste produced primarily by the presence of sodium ions. Other ions of the alkali metals group also taste salty, but the further from sodium the less salty the sensation is. The size of lithium and potassium ions most closely resemble those of sodium and ...


34

The classic catch-all term is molecular entity, often abbreviated to just entity. There's a Wikipedia page for it, which references the IUPAC Gold Book entry. Quoting from the latter: Any constitutionally or isotopically distinct atom, molecule, ion, ion pair, radical, radical ion, complex, conformer etc., identifiable as a separately distinguishable ...


32

Methanol isn't particularly toxic in and of itself, although it's no walk in the park. If methanol flowed through the body without being broken down, it would cause roughly the same kind of harm as ethanol, i.e. intoxication. The real culprit is one of its metabolic products, methanoic acid, also known as formic acid. To understand how formic acid, ...


28

Sugar is made by repeatedly boiling and cooling cane syrup (or sugar beet syrup). After each cooling, the solution becomes supersaturated with respect to sucrose, causing sucrose to crystallize out of the "mother liquor" (the industrial term for the liquid solution from which crystals form). These crystals of "raw" sugar are heavily processed (washed in ...


28

Pure water (i.e. 18 Megohm conductivity) is still just water. If you don't drink so much as to cause water intoxication, it would be no different physiologically from drinking tap water or bottled water.


27

Cyanide is a pretty good ligand for coordination compounds. The electron pair on carbon (which, incidentally, also carries the Lewis structure’s formal charge) is located in the HOMO — much like as in $\ce{CO}$, whose molecular orbitals can be found in this answer by Martin (replace oxygen with nitrogen to arrive at $\ce{CN-}$) — making it a good Lewis base ...


26

There is no fundamental law preventing simple chemical reactions: things are complex because of the combinatorial complexity of chemical compounds The complexity of many chemical reactions is a byproduct of the fact that there is a very, very large variety of possible chemicals. Much of that complexity happens because of the almost infinite way even some ...


24

Excursion into simple coordination chemistry: Bonding, backbonding and simple orbital schemes Please refer to Breaking Bioinformatic’s answer for the MO scheme of carbon monoxide, it is very helpful. You might also look at the orbital pictures in this answer by Martin. Carbon monoxide can bind to metal centres via a σ coordinative bond where the HOMO ...


23

The answer to this question lies in the pharmacokinetics of these two drugs: the acetyl groups cause Heroin to be 200 times more lipid soluble than Morphine1. Another example of a common drug would be Fentanyl, which is 580 times more lipid soluble than morphine, with a structure very similar to that of Morphine. Increased lipid solubility allows these drugs ...


20

Yes it would, by a few percent. It may or may not be a goal worth pursuing, but there is more to it. Different reactions would be slowed down to a different extent. Tiny as they are, these discrepancies suffice to disrupt the delicate biochemical machinery of the living cell. No life form more advanced than bacteria is OK with that. Deuterated water in high ...


19

As cibrail said, DNA is a polymer of nucleotides. They join themselves through phosphodiester bonds (a specific kind of covalent bond) that can grow to as much as millions of nucleotides. What part in the strand contributes to the overall non neutral charge? The reason why DNA is negatively charged is the phosphate group that makes up every nucleotide (...


19

It doesn't make calcium carbonate rubbery, it removes the calcium carbonate. Egg shells are not purely calcium carbonate they are more like a composite with a continuous matrix of calcium carbonate and a smaller continuous matrix of protien. When you put the egg in vinegar, you etch away this calcium carbonate matrix leaving the formerly less noticeable ...


18

The enzyme alcohol dehydroganase converts the methanol to formaldehyde in the body. Formaldehyde is then converted to formic acid. Formaldehyde can cause blindness before being converted to formic acid, while formic acid causes acidosis as Williham Totland points out. See Biochemical Aspects of Methanol Poisoning for more information.


18

Since the $\mathrm{pI}$ is the $\mathrm{pH}$ at which the amino acid has no overall net charge, you need to average the $\mathrm pK_\mathrm a$ values relevant to the protonation/deprotonation of the form with no net charge. Here are the acid-base equilibria for tyrosine: The form with no net charge is in red (+1 and -1 cancel out to give no net charge). It ...


18

It is essentially exactly what your teacher says: the term vitamin B complex is used because the structures assigned a name ‘vitamin Bx’ don’t really have anything in common although they are all somewhat important. As to why nobody ever uses vitamin K complex or vitamin D complex: well, at least in my country those vitamins are very under-represented when ...


17

The halogens, particularly in their diatomic free states and within various oxoacids, are strong oxidizing agents by virtue of their high electronegativities, electron affinities, and reduction potentials. The polarizability of the heavier halogens also makes them almost uniquely versatile as both good leaving groups and strong nucleophiles, depending on ...


16

permeakra is quite right with his counterexamples of salts that don't taste purely salty, but I'd like to expand on why. We haven't fully identified and elucidated the receptors involved in taste, but they can be broadly classed into tastes people are familiar with: salty, sweet, sour, bitter, and umami. Salty and sour receptors are both known to be mostly ...


16

The answer has to do with pi-backbonding. In essence, the CO molecule has a negative formal charge on the carbon (it's neutral because of the oxygen having a positive formal charge). However, C is quite electropositive, and would like to relieve the stress caused by the negative formal charge. To relieve the stress caused by the negative charge, the CO ...


16

Let me add to iad22agp's excellent answer. Often times in introductory biochemistry classes, the difference between phosphoanhydride and phosphate ester bonds is not adequately explained. ATP (and ADP) contain phosphoanhydride bonds. In these bonds, two phosphoric acid groups are condensed into one: $\ce{R~-H2PO3 + R'~-H2PO3 -> R-HO2P-O-PO2H-R' + ...


16

To answer the question in the title: Yes, ATP can be synthesised, isolated and you can even eat it. It would be very expensive to do so but considering others put gold on most of their food that’s not a reason in itself not to. While eating too high a dose of ATP is not beneficial as per Paracelsus’ law, small amounts are certainly not harmful. However, ...


16

The metal’s trivalency is certainly not an issue. Iron and cobalt form trivalent compounds (in the $\mathrm{+III}$ oxidation state) in many of their biologically relevant complexes. In fact, in metalloprotein surroundings the actual ‘valency’ (oxidation state) is not so much of a deciding factor; what matters is the number of ligands and the required ...


15

According to the NIST ChemBook, 2-imidazolidinone and 2-imidazolidone are synonymous. The official IUPAC name is imidazolidin-2-one. 1,3-ethyleneurea is also another name for this same molecule:      But, as you note, tiny changes in spelling can sometimes be much more tricky than this. To take an example from this family: imidazolidinone and imidazolinone ...


15

The issue is one of yield. Each step has a certain yield percentage of yield, that the synthesizers will maximize as much as possible. However, given that it is fairly impossible to generate 100% yield all the time, the amount of desired protein you get over time will deteriorate exponentially with length. For example, say that each step gives you 95% yield....


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