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The question you have to ask yourself is what is the length scale of the features you want to study as this will inform you of the correct technique to use. The most common type of SPM is the atomic force microscope (AFM) which has an astoundingly high resolution (atomic scale in the right conditions), but as a result is limited to relatively small scan ...


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It is possible that your instructor meant $\sigma$ bonding -- one lobe pointed straight at another lobe -- is stronger because it has more overlap than $\pi$ bonding, which would be them vertically aligned, but contacting "shoulder-to-shoulder" instead. The energy term contains orbital overlap, and so it can be reasoned qualitatively that an ...


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It is an interesting question, and I am not completely sure on everything I write below. First of all, atomic volume is defined as the "quotient obtained by dividing the atomic weight of an element by its specific gravity". (Merriam-Webster) It is interesting to note that I could find only a few publications that have the term "atomic volume&...


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Take the example of group-12 chlorides $\ce{ZnCl2}$, $\ce{CdCl2}$ and $\ce{HgCl2}$. The ionic radii (VI coordination) increases from $\ce{Zn++}(\pu{0.74~\overset \circ A)}$ to $\ce{Cd++}(\pu{0.95~\overset \circ A)}$ to $\ce{Hg++}(\pu{1.02~\overset \circ A)}$. Due to lanthanide contraction or poor shielding of $\ce{4f^14 e-}$ in $\ce{Hg}$, the difference of ...


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I'll get to zinc, but first, the ground state electron configuration of ground state gaseous neutral nickel is [Ar]3d$^8$4s$^2$. Ref 1. Nickel has 28 nuclear protons, two less than zinc. If atomic structures build up linearly, this says that if you put two more protons into the nucleus, you have to fill the 3d shell of electrons, because that's what's empty....


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