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$Z=Z_{eff}+\sigma$, where $\sigma$ is shielding constant calculated according to Slater's rule. Since Slater's rule can be applied to any electron regardless of whether or not it's a valence electron, I think $Z_{eff}$ and $Z$ can be defined for any electron too, $Z$ in particular remaining constant. The effect of outer electrons not being taken is also ...


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Quantum mechanics received its name from the concept of the "quantum" which is Latin for "how much" or "amount" and is used to mean "small discrete piece or fragment". Classical physics prior to the development of QM described the energy of bodies as a continuum of possibilities. The novelty introduced by QM was the ...


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These orbitals represent the angular part of the wavefunction. The solution obtained directly from solving the Schrödinger equation produces equations containing complex numbers so cannot be drawn on normal $xyz$ axes and are hard to visualise. The angular part of the wavefunction is given by functions called Spherical Harmonics these usually are given the ...


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The OP can understand, mathematically, why the energy of the electron in the Bohr atom is zero at infinity, so let's avoid the mathematics in order to assist the imagination. In the (small?) universe which consists of just a single hydrogen atom (plus all necessary equipment to measure potentials and distance), it is necessary to cause a separation of the ...


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The value of the energy in the Bohr model is zero when the quantum number is infinity because that is the limiting value of the Coulombic potential at large distances, and because the electron is assumed bound to the nucleus (the atom is stable), which constrains the value of the total energy. The energy of a stationary hydrogen-like atom is described by ...


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