9

Initially one would assume that cumene (isopropyl benzene) would be the major product. However, kinetic control does have a say in this reaction, according to Gilman and Means.1 At - 2°, n-propyl bromide with benzene and aluminum chloride gave n-propylbenzene, identified as its sulfonamide. Genvresse (6) obtained both n-propylbenzene and isopropylbenzene by ...


5

Aniruddha Deb gave an excellent answer to your question. Yet, there is another important point of differences on two Friedel-Craft processes: Alkylation vs acylation. I admit that rearrangement is the major drawback on alkylation process (using alkyl halides with a catalyst). However, another fact is you cannot stop the reaction after monoalkylation. The ...


4

This reaction was conducted using a 3- to 5-fold excess of ethyl cyanoacetate (ECA) and KOH over the arylnitro compounds in dimethylformamide (DMF). It is also important to realize that most KOH is 15% water, which allows for a source of protons in this basic medium. Steps 1 --> 3 (Scheme 1) illustrate a possible route to nitrone 4. In so doing the ECA ...


4

Here's the 3D structure of the substrate: As you can see, the $\ce{-N(Me)2}$ group is clearly larger than the $\ce{-CONH2}$ group. Also notice that the $\ce{-N(Me)2}$ group is planar with the benzene ring. This is because this structure is the most favourable for $\mathrm{p-\pi}$ conjugation 1. Your guess that A would not form is correct. The large size of ...


3

PubChem gives dipole moment ($\mu$) of 1,4-dibromobenzene (p-dibromobenzene) as $\pu{1.43 D}$ in gas phase and $\pu{1.87 D}$ in liquid phase at $\pu{20 ^\circ C}$. It has given 1987 version of Handbook of Organic Chemistry (J. A. Dean, Ed.) as the reference. PubChem also gave $7.77$ as dielectric constant at $\pu{10 ^\circ C}$ and $6.7$ at $\pu{40 ^\circ C}$ ...


3

tBu-benzene is prepared exactly as you describe, see this preparation here. Follow this by nitration and reduction. There is no obviously comparable strategy of acylation that can compete with this. Making a tBu group from acetophenone is not straightforward and is illogical when there is a perfectly good direct route.


3

Let's stay with your example of benzene, $\ce{C6H6}$. There are six carbon atoms bound in cyclic fashion with each other, and maintain each one bond to a hydrogen atom, too. This is explained conceptually that for each carbon atom the outmost $s$ and three $p$ atom orbitals were hybridized to yield three $sp^2$ of equal energy, leaving one $p_z$ orbital «...


3

Benzoquinone($\ce{C6H4O2}$) is a quinone with a single benzene ring. There are two types of benzoquinone: 1,4-Benzoquinone also called p-benzoquinone. More common type of benzoquinone. It is the main product of oxidation of phenol. 1,2-Benzoquinone also called o-benzoquinone. Less common type of benzoquinone. Phenoquinone is a crystalline complex made of ...


2

There are three mechanisms to discuss here: $S_N2$, $S_N1$ for $RX$ and nucleophilic aromatic substitution by addition-elimination for $ArX$: $S_N2$ and $S_N1$: (Image from https://www.quora.com/Why-steric-hindrance-doesnt-affect-Sn1-reaction) $S_N2$ is concerted (one step), so this one step is rate determining, or the slowest of the mechanism. In $S_N1$, ...


2

Based on literature, I'd say the unsuccessful Friedel-Crafts reaction between benzoyl chloride and mesitylene is not due to steric reasoning. My argument is based on at least one report of Friedel-Crafts acylation on following polymethylated aromatic compounds (Ref.1): The mono- and di-acylation have been taken place between 1,3-substitutions in each ...


2

Your thought is actually happening in real life. Petrolium industry uses the same concept except for polymerizing ethene (may be that also used to get higher alkanes). Fluid Catalytic Cracking (FCC) is one of the most important conversion processes used in petroleum refineries. FCC (see the schematic diagram below)) is widely used to convert the high-boiling,...


2

It all made sense because $\ce{CH_3COOH}$ was an acid $\ce{CH_3COOH}$ being an acid facilitates the complex formation as the chlorido ligands can be easily removed as $\ce{HCl}$. But, that's not the only reason why the red colored complex $\ce{[Fe(OAc)_3]}$ was formed. You have to understand that the stability of the complexes is also determined by how well ...


2

Believe it or not, aniline was actually isolated from coal tar way back in 1834. A chemist called Friedlieb Runge isolated aniline along with phenol from coal tar. He discovered that aniline produced a beautiful blue color when treated with chloride of lime (calcium hypochlorite). He named it cyanol/kyanol and that was the birth of the first aniline dye but ...


2

Rewording my five-year-old comments into an answer: The idea of "meta" or "para" is a bit different here, since you have not just one, but two alkyl groups. Being meta to one means ortho/para to the other, and vice versa. Since there are two substituents to start off with, you have to consider both their directing effects separately and ...


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