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The best way to download bulk data from PubChem is actually FTP, as documented in their documentation. For example, if you want the unfiltered SMILES of every CID in PubChem, the URL is ftp://ftp.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubchem/Compound/Extras/CID-SMILES.gz You can also download subsets using the PubChem Structure Download service And as mentioned above, there ...


4

Nitrosyl cation, $\ce{NO^+}$, is a better electrophile than molecular $\ce{HNO3}$ (you don't get $\ce{NO_2^+}$ in this system without sulfuric acid or other strong auxiliary acid) and so you get nitrosobenzene in the substitution reaction. But then the nitrosyl group with its nonbonding electron pair is an attractive target for oxidation by the nitric acid ...


4

Chemistry is an experimental science supported by computational methods. Qualitative explanations for reaction mechanisms follow as a result. More on that issue later.The mechanism of the Birch reduction has been investigated by Zimmerman and Wang.1 What are the experimental results? The Birch reduction is first order in substrate, electrons and alcohol. ...


3

Essentially, both descriptions are identical. However, they use different phrasings. What Carey and Sundberg mean when they say no allylic stabilisation is essentially that the cation itself is not in an allylic position; that there is no single (non-phenylic) double bond in α-position. To reach the allylic double bond in the β-attack case, you ...


2

I just looked in the literature, and it has been done even without catalyst in a "reactive distillation column" at high temperatures (patent US201113194873). If you can remove the water formed, you can technically drive the reaction forward, even if it is slow. A catalyst will just make that process easier, requiring less heat and time. Phosphoric acid is a ...


2

The following is the abstract of K.M. Zhang "Selective Nitration Of Benzyl Chloride And Its Application In The Synthesis Of Nitrobenzaldehyde"(link). The full pdf is behind paywall. The selective nitration of benzyl chloride and its application in the synthesis of 4-nitrobenzaldehyde were studied. Nitration of benzyl chloride with $\ce{HNO3}$ in the ...


1

Find some nice instruction: http://nzetc.victoria.ac.nz/tm/scholarly/tei-Bio06Tuat03-t1-body-d2.html As Picric Acid stored under layer of water, we could know it's concentration in the water. It should be enough for most of the applications. Temperature ° C. grams picric acid/100 grams solution 0 | 0.67 10 | 0.80 20 | 1.10 30 | 1.38


1

If accuracy is not essential, weigh a small amount drained for a fixed time but still wet, and then weigh again dried, to find the ratio of wet-to-dry weight (carefully disposing the dried, sensitized, explosive without destroying the scale or personnel). Though this could give a rough idea of the actual dried weight, it would vary from batch to batch and ...


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