5

The method presented by Yusuf is a simplified model, which works best for well-behaved molecules. Unfortunately in this case it presents the 'correct' result based on incorrect assumptions. (Even though I did a calculation, I am not 100% convinced this is actually the correct result in the first place.) In order for the resonance to stabilise a negative ...


4

TL;DR: It's 2 (2,2'‐dibromo‐6,6'‐diiodo‐1,1'‐biphenyl) and maybe even 3 (2,2'‐diiodo‐1,1'‐biphenyl; 2,6‐dimethyl‐1,1'‐biphenyl) at higher temperatures. Introduction According to the IUPAC gold book chirality is defined the as the geometric property of a rigid object of being non-superposable on its mirror image. Orr in other words, such an object has ...


3

You can take both factors (1) and (2) combined as the reasoning for the greater acidity of the former. When you are comparing stability (in thermodynamic terms) of two conjugate bases, you are basically trying to position them with respect to each other on the energy axis of the energy profile (or reaction coordinate diagram). In this case, the reaction ...


2

There's almost nothing you can do in this situation, unfortunately. Because of strong coupling and other issues, aromatic peaks often do not conform to the so-called $n+1$ rule, which makes it highly non-trivial to extract coupling constants. It is probably possible to "fit" coupling constants to the multiplet shape by simulating the spectrum for a given set ...


1

Using atomic orbitals to construct molecular orbitals involves some shifting and redrawing because of overlaps. Benzene is symmetrical, so whether you draw six carbon atomic p-orbitals or squash and spread them out, you get the idea. Now, when you look at phenol, the C-O bond is unsymmetrical, so if you want to be more precise, you say that oxygen draws some ...


1

There is a significant quantum probability a delocalized electron is there, what in average attracts atoms together, compared to the state there was no such an electron. E.g. for benzene, the distance is shorter than for a single bond, but longer than for a double bond, being effectively 1.5 bond.


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