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1.Why are they carcinogenic: From my point of view as a medicinal chemist, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons compounds tend to be metabolized by specific cytochrome P450 (CYP 450) isofroms to form highly electrophilic species, which are highly reactive and can react with the DNA of the cell and damage it. Specifically, they can react with the nucleophilic ...


4

I don't think this is an either this or that situation. As with most of the equilibria we know it depends very much on the circumstances we look at it. Many examples of keto-enol-tautomerism are heavily influenced by the solvent. Due to time and resource restrictions I won't be able to go in as much detail as I did in explaining whether enolates get ...


3

Yes, it is possible. The Rosenmun-von Braun reaction is the classic method of doing this. But it involves CuCN which is quite toxic. I'd suggest that you investigate some more modern methods. These use palladium based catalysts. Many also use Zn(CN)2 which is still toxic but less so than CuCN. These two are good for starters: Iqbal, Z., Lyubimtsev, A.,...


2

Aluminium iodide ($\ce{AlI3}$) is first introduced in 1984 as an easily accessible, a highly regioselective versatile ether-cleaving reagent with novel cleavage pattern (Ref.1). Application of $\ce{AlI3}$ in organic synthesis has been reviewed (Ref.2) and it seems like acetonitrile is the best solvent to be used in catechol ether demethylation (e.g., 2-...


2

Electron giving groups like $-OCH_3$ (by resonance) and $-CH_3$ (by hyperconjugation) are Ortho-Para directing. But, in cases where there is no increased stability by H-bonding or other factors at ortho position, the para substituted product will give major yield. This can simply be explained by stating that there is less steric hindernace on the para ...


1

Permanganate ion i acidic medium can have two reduction half reactions, $(1)$ and $(2)$: $$\ce{MnO4- + 8H+ + 5e- -> Mn^2+ + 4H2O}\:\:\: E^\circ = \pu{1.50 V} \tag{1}$$ $$\ce{MnO4- + 4H+ + 3e- -> MnO2 + 2H2O}\:\:\: E^\circ = \pu{1.68 V} \tag{2}$$ Regardless of what oxidizing reagent has been used, the oxidation of toluene can be written as: $$\ce{...


1

In the case of o-nitrophenol, the acidic hydrogen is hydrogen-bonded to the nitro group's oxygen atom, making it less acidic. In the case of catechol, one acidic hydrogen is hydrogen-bonded to the adjacent OH group's oxygen atom, but the other, more acidic hydrogen is not hydrogen bonded. This hydrogen is more acidic than that of hydroquinone. The resulting ...


1

This Article states the following about 4-pyridone in its abstract: Aromatic resonance energies for 4-pyridone and its analogues are similar to those for the 2-pyridone series. This means that in order to find out how 4-pyridone is so stable, all we have to do is take a look at it's sister, 2-pyridone. 2-pyridone and it's tautomeric form, 2-pyridinol ...


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