8

Biphenyl 3 is the only optically active compound here. These stereoisomers are due to the hindered rotation about the 1,1'-single bond of the compound (Ref.1). Biphenyl 2 is noty optically active, because partially allowed rotation about the 1,1'-single bond of the compound (rotation is only partially restricted). To illustrate this phenomenon, I depicted ...


6

(3) is not chiral, so maybe it is (2).


3

It's a reversible reaction, so at higher temperature the thermodynamic para product is formed from the kinetic ortho product. Further reading here 1


3

Both -$\ce{OCH3}$ and -$\ce{OH}$ groups have exhibited two effects on the aromatic ring: (1) Electron donating resonance or mesomeric effect (+M) and (2) Electron withdrawing inductive effect (-I). For both acids in hand, the electron withdrawing inductive effect (-I) is almost same since both -$\ce{OCH3}$ and -$\ce{OH}$ groups are 4 carbons away from the ...


2

The Me group has no directing effect in the deprotonation so there are 2 protons (o & p) that can be removed with equal probability by the NaNH2 to give the benzyne. These give 2 possible benzynes (2 and 3 relative to Me). The nucleophile will add with equal facility to either end of either benzyne giving a mixture of 3 isomers in 1:2:1 ratio. The major ...


2

The thing you have to realise is that H-bonding can lower the ease with which the acidic $\ce{H}$ is removed, but it does not render it completely 'locked' within the molecule. What you have to understand is, the hydrogen bond shown here is not that strong as compared to the other kinds of H-bonds which have been observed in chemistry Let us consider some ...


1

Organosilicon compounds fall under the broader category of Organometallic compounds. It is a requirement that in organometallic compounds, atleast one $\ce{C-M}$ bond should exist. Since Si is only bonded to oxygen atoms in your compound, the given compound is not an organosilicon compound. The following is also mentioned in the wikipedia page for ...


1

Phenols have higher acidities than aliphatic alcohols due to the aromatic ring's tight coupling with the oxygen and a relatively loose bond between the oxygen and hydrogen of the hydroxyl group directly attached to the aromatic carbocyclic nucleus. For this reason, electron withdrawing groups (EWG) and/or electron donating groups (EDG) attached to aromatic ...


1

$\mathrm{p}K_\mathrm{a}$ is inversely proportional to acidity of a compound similar to $\mathrm{p}K_\mathrm{b}$ which is inversely proportional to basicity as it is $-\log K_\mathrm{a}$ and $-\log K_\mathrm{b}.$ In this case nitro group is a electron-withdrawing and deactivates the phenyl group the most, whereas $\ce{Cl}$ is a moderate deactivating group ...


1

I am directly going to address the source of your confusion: $\text{+M}$ of -$\ce{OCH3}$ is more than -$\ce{OH}$. You see, you are basically saying that the $\text{+I}$ effect of $\ce{CH3}$ in -$\ce{OCH3}$ is going to push more electron density towards the ring, hence, -$\ce{OCH3}$ is more activating than -$\ce{OH}$. But look at the bigger picture, and let'...


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