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During a electrophilic aromatic substitution, it is always possible to have multiple substitutions during one reaction. However, your example is not the ideal one for a discussion. As noted, Oscar Lanzi has questioned even aromatic ring of nitrobenzene is active enough to give even one $\ce{Br}$ substitution. To clear that, I have found a reliable reference: ...


13

The rate of Aromatic substitution depends upon the activity of the aromatic system, because when the collision happens the aromatic system has to donate electrons to an electrophile. In the example above you have used nitro-benzene, which is very strong deactivated due to the $\ce{-NO2}$ group and thus the ortho and para positions are completely blocked. The ...


7

As I noted in a Comment that there should be no significant difference between the use of ethanol or isoamyl alcohol in the reduction of naphthalene with sodium in that both alcohols are primary. The difference lies in the conditions of the reaction. The sequence is a classic case of kinetic vs. thermodynamic conditions. The reaction conditions in the ...


4

@Waylander has provided a concise route to the nitro compound in question. I am also in accord with his comments regarding the OP's effort and his assessment that benzene, as a starting material, is not a choice by a practicing chemist. Now that he has opened the door to a solution, I offer a more traditional approach. Classical nitration of ketoacid 7 ...


4

While I think the OP should make more of an effort at answering this I am going to suggest a route because I think this is an interesting challenge - if a little unreal. In the real world of preparative organic chemistry you would not be starting from benzene. There are many possible approaches to this, but here is mine Step 1 - carbamoylation of benzene ...


1

Benzene, which has already been mentioned in the comments is colourless. The frequency of light absorbed corresponds to the complementary colour of the colour we see in azo dyes. Benzene only contains a small area of delocalisation, which is not sufficient to lower the energy gap to the visible part of the spectrum, meaning benzene absorbs UV light and is ...


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