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Dissolution enthalpy is kind of scale balancing as being combination of lattice energy ( positive solid matrix breaking enthalpy) and hydration enthalpy(usually negative), following the formal process $$\ce{CaCl2(s) -> Ca^2+(g) + 2 Cl-(g) ->[H2O] Ca^2+(aq) + 2 Cl-(aq)}$$ The hydration enthalpy is very negative for anhydrous $\ce{CaCl2}$, but just ...


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Chelate complexes are more stable IF EVERYTHING ELSE IS THE SAME. In your case, the anionic nature(cf. ethylenediamine is neutral) of cyanide makes cyanide a better sigma-donor than is ethylenediamine, while the pi-accepting nature(cf. ethylenediamine is pi-neutral, if not (hyperconjugative) pi-donating) of cyanide makes cyanide a better pi-acceptor than is ...


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After the synthesis, your crude solid acetaminophen contains dark impurities, which have been formed from oxidation of the starting material, 4-aminophenol that carried along during the synthesis (if you have used 4-aminophenol as it is without purification). These impurities are intensely colored dyes of unknown structures with highly conjugated chromophore,...


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Dextrose equivalent $(DE)$ is a measure of the amount of reducing sugars present in a sugar product, expressed as a percentage on a dry basis relative to dextrose (glucose). Commercial sugar products are generally characterized by their dextrose equivalent $(DE)$ value (Ref.1). The theoretical definition of $DE$ is given by: $$DE = \frac{\text{Reducing power ...


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