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2

Freezing I've heard that the freezing and boiling points of the mixed liquid would exist on some continuum between the freezing and boiling points of its constituent liquids (ammonia and water), varying depending on the exact mix ratio and of course pressure. Is that correct? For freezing points, that is incorrect. Pure water freezes at 273 K and pure ...


2

The link above which I used for reference mentions that for the test for sulfate anions, hydrochloric acid (HCl) is used to ensure that there is no presence of carbonate ions. For the test for halide ions (F−, Cl−, Br−, I−, etc), nitric acid (HNO3) is used instead, for the same purpose. Good question, but this is not a universal practice. In reality,...


1

The pH is not corrected mathematically, it is stabilized chemically by addition of NaOH when the pH sensors get out of range. Your pH is controlled to be constant over the fermentation period (+/- a little bit). The acid produced by the fermentation is neutralized by addition of NaOH to keep the pH constant. What you can calculate from the data you get is ...


-1

You have the equilibrium in water: $$\ce{H2O <=> H+ + OH-}$$ The protons are removed from the equilibrium: $$\ce{H+ + CO3^2- <=> HCO3-}$$ Now you have more $\ce{OH-}$ in the solution which increases the pH.


0

The electron configuration of sodium ion is that of the inert gas neon (1s^2 2s^2 2p^6), a spherical shell with a positive charge at the nucleus. There are 10 electrons inside this shell. The electron configuration of silver ion is that of krypton plus 4d^10, a spherical shell with a positive charge at the center. There are 46 electrons inside this shell. ...


2

You run into all sorts of problems when the pH is outside of the range of 1 to 13. For example, in Environ. Sci. Technol. (2000) 342, p. 254-258, they say: [...] the former National Bureau of Standards (NBS) established a set of conventions that limits measurements to 1 < pH < 13 and to ionic strength, I < 0.1. The main limitations are the ...


1

Charge transport depends on the presence of charge carriers, and an increase of the concentration of charge carriers may increase the electric conductivity. This is the basis of the answer given to you which (implicitly) assumes each of these complexes dissociate, e.g. $\ce{K4[Fe(CN)6] <=> 4 K+ + [Fe(CN)6]^{4-}}$ in your solvent completely. In this ...


3

GermX thins when it hits your hands because of the sodium ions present in your hands. The polymer used in GermX is a polyelectrolyte - in this case it is poly(acyrlic acid) that has been neutralized with a base made with a large cation. The large cation is too large to effectively separate and quench the electrical repulsion between the neighboring negative ...


4

Your solution is correct up to the point you assumed that you can double the concentration of hydrochloric acid. Unfortunately, this is wrong and not at all how stoichiometry works. Let's focus on what's important. In the nutshell, we are dealing with a typical neutralization reaction: $$\ce{H3O+ + OH- <=> 2 H2O}$$ and note that $\ce{BaCl2}$ as a ...


0

Try Oelic acid and TEA with Waxes. 1. Take 3% Oelic acid 2. Add 3% TEA in Oelic acid and stir it with continuous heating up to 50C. 3. Take 100ml Water in Above solution. 4. Take 20grm carnuaba wax and dissolve it in above solution with continuous mixing and heating up to 60C. 5. Again add 40 to 50ml water in above solution.


0

$\ce{CaCO3}$ is easily decarboxylated to $\ce{CaO}$ in the heat of the fire. By dumping the ash into water you get a solution of $\ce{Ca(OH)2}$ and $\ce{K2CO3}$, and since $\ce{CaCO3}$ is less soluble than $\ce{Ca(OH)2}$ and $\ce{K2CO3}$ you end up with $\ce{KOH + Ca(OH)2}$ solution in one step and $\ce{CO2}$ dissolving into this solution will deplete ...


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