31

Technically, alcohol is the name of a class of organic compounds containing one or several hydroxyl groups. Colloquially, the term "alcohol" is understood as you have described: A solution (of varying degree of purity) of ethanol and water. Pure ethanol is impossible to create via the traditional method of purification (atmospheric distillation) as the ...


27

The problem arises from the metabolized products of methanol. Methanol oxidizes in the liver by an enzyme called alcohol dehydrogenase to formaldehyde which is further metabolized to formic acid by another enzyme called aldehyde dehydrogenase. This formic acid is the source for acute toxicity associated with methanol poisoning. Accumulation of this chemical ...


23

In the conversion of primary alcohols to primary amines $$\ce{R-CH2OH -> R-CH2NH2}$$ direct alkylation of ammonia normally is the last thing you want to do in the lab. Under conditions where $\ce{OH}$ is a good leaving group, i.e. in acidic medium, the nucleophilicity of ammonia is reduced due to protonation. Moreover, there's little chance to prevent ...


23

In the pinacol rearrangement, a 1,2-diol is treated with acid and rearranges to a carbonyl compound. Here is a reaction scheme showing a mechanism for the rearrangement. In this case the molecule is symmetric and methyl migration is the only reaction pathway available. Methyl migration can 1) help stabilize the developing carbocation center and 2) once ...


21

IPA has a different carbon:hydrogen ratio than ethanol. There is more incomplete combustion occurring with IPA, hence the smoky orange flame and smell of soot. Ethanol combusts more completely, leading to a blue (soot-free) flame and no smell. In response to your second question, ethanol likely has a lower latent heat of vaporisation than IPA, resulting in ...


20

The function of pyridine is actually not so simple and not so easy to notice at first glance. There is a fundamental reason why pyridine is used to promote the acylation reaction, which is that it can act as a catalyst. Despite its basicity and the subsequent formation of its chlorhydrate salt after the tosylation reaction, pyridine is also an excellent ...


20

(I'm no chemist, but here's my take on it) Let's see: I’m an alcoholic, and I really hate having to dole out large amounts of cash to purchase your usual "drinking"-ethanol. So I get this amazing idea to separate the ethanol by distillation (methanol has a lower boiling point than methanol, so what I'll really be doing is distilling out the methanol, ...


17

Well first off, pure ethanol is hygroscopic; it attracts water, to the point that it will pull it out of the air. Ethanol and gasoline will mix, but ethanol, gasoline and water will not; the ethanol-water mixture will come out of solution and settle on the bottom of your tank. Add a little oxygen to the mix, and you get rust. However, the more common side ...


17

You are both right and wrong. At low temperatures, the NMR spectrum will indeed be as you predicted: the $\ce{H}$ from $\ce{OH}$ will produce a quartet and likewise the $\ce{H}$ from $\ce{CH_3}$ will produce a doublet. Note that at low temperatures the formation of $\ce{H}$ bonds is favored, hence leading to more stable components and significantly ...


17

The golden book states that ethenol is an alcohol: Enols Alkenols; the term refers specifically to vinylic alcohols, which have the structure $\ce{HOCR'=CR2}$. However, the modifier "vinylic" is rather important, so I would never omit it.


17

Interesting observation. The blue flame color of all hydrocarbon fuels is due to the emission small diatomic carbon species such $C_2$ or CH. There is nothing magical about IPA having a yellow flame. The yellow flame originates from incomplete combustion. There is more carbon per mole of IPA as compared to ethanol. Yellow flames are called reducing flames ...


16

Thionyl chloride is preferred for preparing alkyl chlorides from alcohols because the by-products formed in the reaction are $\ce{SO2}$ and $\ce{HCl}$ which are in gaseous form and escape into the atmosphere leaving behind pure alkyl chlorides. $$\ce{CH3CH2-OH + SOCl2 → CH3CH2-Cl + SO2 ↑ + HCl ↑}$$


16

Preparation of alkyl chlorides from alcohols by thionyl chloride is preferred over other methods mentioned because of the following reasons : $$\ce{R-OH + PCl5 → R-Cl + POCl3 + HCl ↑}$$ $$\ce{3R-OH + PCl3 → 3R-Cl + H3PO3}$$ $$\ce{R-OH + SOCl2 → R-Cl + SO2 ↑ + HCl ↑}$$ Both the byproducts formed in the last reaction i.e., $\ce{SO2}$ and ...


15

The term "Essigäther" is actually the German name for ethyl acetate i.e Essig = "vinegar" + Äther = "ether". "vinegar" becomes acetic, hence ethyl acetate becomes "acetic ether". (etymoline.com) But, ethyl acetate is an ester. So, why is it named "acetic ether"? According to Leopold Gmelin, ester ...


14

Litmus is a weak acid, with a $\mathrm{p}K_\mathrm{a}$ of about 6.5. Alcohols are extremely weak acids, with $\mathrm{p}K_\mathrm{a}$'s (typically) around 17. The litmus itself is a much stronger acid than the alcohol. Dissociation of the alcohol won't produce enough protons to shift the equilibrium between the two colored forms of the indicator, so you'...


14

Generally speaking, they're called diols when bearing two hydroxyl groups. If they're on the same C, this is called a geminal diol, if they are on neighboring Cs, they're called vicinal diols. The C on geminal diols has a higher oxidation state than that of an alcohol, i.e. which is why they could be seen as relatives of an aldehydes (or ketones). In a ...


13

If the isopropanol mixture was bought commercially, the chances that it contains significant amounts of methanol or ethanol are fairly small, I think. (I've never seen commercial isopropanol in the US that contains > 3% of these impurities, at least, but the situation may vary in other countries or markets.) If you can assume that the only other main ...


13

Remember your general chemistry. In an acid-base reaction, the equilibrium favors the side of the reaction with the weaker acid/base pair. Strong bases have weak conjugate acids. Strong acids have weak conjugate bases. Weak bases have strong conjugate acids. Weak acids have strong conjugate bases. Consider the following: $$\ce{HA + B- <=> A- + HB}$$ ...


13

This article on Wikipedia says your compound, ethyl sulphate, can be synthesized, by adding sulfuric acid drop-wise to boiling ethanol and temperature should be kept below 413K which agrees with your data. I found also an article according to which authors conducted esterification at about 300K, but with starting presence of anhydrous sodium sulfate. Also ...


12

You have managed to draw the correct acyclic hydrolized compound with a decent mechanism. This is a problem that can be solved by numbering the carbon atoms. Number the carbon atoms sequentially along the chain, starting with the acetal carbon (which has to be the carbonyl group). Likewise number the unpacked acyclic molecule. Use what you get to figure ...


12

Seeing the reaction given here, I assume that is an on-paper reaction that takes place and that all three alcoholic groups are dehydrated. The mechanism (on paper) seems to be as follows Dehydration $1$ For the first dehydration, the carbocation formed is stabilised via ring expansion and then forms a double bond as follows: Dehydration $2$ Similar to the ...


11

The first reaction is the conversion of the alcohol to an alkyl chloride using thionyl chloride. The mechanism of the reaction starts with nucleophilic attack of the alcohol oxygen on sulphur, followed by displacement of $\ce{Cl-}$. Chloride then substitutes the alkyl chlorosulfite group in an $\ce{S_{N}2}$ reaction, and the latter decomposes into $\ce{SO2}$ ...


11

Tschoppi’s answer is technically correct, since it is nigh impossible to create a pure compound without any contaminants. The highest-grade liquids I can remember seeing on SigmaAldrich’s web pages were something like $99.9999~\%$ purity or something — far enough away from $100~\%$ to call it a solution. However in practice, chemists (especially non-...


11

The strength of a hydrogen bond somewhat depends on the $\ce{X-H\bond{...}X}$ angle that the hydrogen-bonding hydrogen forms with the two electronegative elements $\ce{X}$. In our case, carboxylic acids or alcohols, $\ce{X} = \ce{O}$ so the angle is $\ce{O-H\bond{...}O}$. The ideal angle for this fragment is $180^\circ$. As you have drawn for carboxylic ...


11

Background You don't specify whether we are starting with cis- or trans-cyclohexane-1,2-diol, but it doesn't matter since both isomers will interconvert under the reaction conditions. Therefore we will need to consider the reaction products from both isomers. These reactions run in strong acid are never clean. I'd bet that some cyclohexanone was also ...


10

Cyclodextrins, which comprise a class of cyclic carbohydrates, use their properties of being hydrophobic within their ring(s), yet hydrophilic outside. Alcohol can be put inside these rings. Then, the entire molecule is still capable of dissolving in water, releasing the encapsulated alcohol molecules. (src) This popsci link has one way of making edible ...


10

Secondary and tertiary alcohols react with strong acid (and bases) such $\ce{HX}$ following SN1 mechanism. $$\ce{ROH <=> HX + ROH_2^+ + X^-} \tag{1}$$ $$\ce{ROH_2^+ <=> R^+ +H_2O} \tag{2} $$ $$\ce{R+ +X- \rightarrow RX} \tag{3} $$ In these reactions, the rate determining step is the formation of the carbocation (2). So the successive attack of ...


10

You can view water as the simplest alcohol, and indeed, water reacts with all of the Group 1 metals to form hydrogen gas and the corresponding metal hydroxide according to the following equation $\ce{2M + 2HOH -> 2MOH + H2}$ where $\ce{M}$ is the metal. The same reaction occurs with simple alcohols to produce the corresponding metal alkoxide and ...


10

First, water's $\ce{pK_a}$ in water is $\ce{14}$ as explained here. This means that $\ce{H2O}$ is slightly dissociated in liquid form, such that $\ce{[H+] = [HO-] = 10^{-7}}$. Second, I would say that caring too much about which compound is the best acid is a bit like arguing by definition. Acidity is a fuzzy concept used as a shorthand for deeper meaning. ...


10

The reason criminals don't undenture alcohol is probably because it's cheap and easy to make your own alcohol at home. Plus it's legal in the US (click on G1) and most other English-speaking countries. You can get equipment kits from anywhere between 50 and 200 USD (more expensive kits will get you tools that make things easier or improve quality and add ...


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