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This tag should be applied to questions concerning acid and base reactions. An acid is capable of donating a hydron/ proton (Brønsted acid) or capable of forming a covalent bond with an electron pair (Lewis acid). A base on the other hand is a chemical species/ molecular entity having an available pair of electrons capable of forming a covalent bond with a hydron/ proton (Brønsted base) or with the vacant orbital of some other species (Lewis base).

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When dissolved in water, chlorine gives an equilibrium mixture of chlorine, hypochlorous acid ($\ce{HOCl}$), and hydrochloric acid ($\ce{HCl}$): $$\ce{Cl2 + H2O <=> HOCl + HCl}$$ In acidi …
answered Feb 7 '18 by James Gaidis
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Several organic acids are endothermic when dissolved in water: citric and tartaric are two that I have experience with. They would be good candidates for experiment 4. The difficult one is the carbon …
answered Apr 2 by James Gaidis
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Many commercial detergents are composed of pH-neutral surfactants like alkyl polyethylene oxides plus alkaline additives like sodium silicate or carbonate or borax, which help dissolve greasy material …
answered Jul 5 by James Gaidis
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You've made some assumptions that we can deal with, and some that need adjustment. 1) 1 liter of water weighs 1000 grams. Correct. However, 1 liter of 5% acetic acid weighs 1005 grams. No big deal; 1 …
answered Aug 28 '18 by James Gaidis
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"Hydrogen" means different things at different times. It can mean $\ce{H+}$, $\ce{H.}$, or $\ce{H2}$. (Not to mention deuterium and tritium!) A bare proton ($\ce{H+}$) does not bring an electron to t …
answered Apr 27 '18 by James Gaidis
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In desperation, for some unknown reason, I need 15% aqueous $\ce{HF}$. What do I really need? A weak solution of $\ce{H+}$, say about pH 2. And a solution of fluoride ions to wreak havoc on some unsus …
answered Feb 1 '18 by James Gaidis
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It is interesting to consider that either outcome is possible, depending on the order of addition. If a solution containing 0.5 moles of HCl is added to a solution of 1 mole of K2CO3, slowly, with mi …
answered Jul 21 by James Gaidis
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From the pH and solubility information alone, I would propose sodium bisulfate: cheap, readily available, safe in the powerfully oxidizing solution. (Possibly also potassium bisulfate.) One way of ma …
answered Mar 6 '18 by James Gaidis
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Maybe the water spots are not limestone, chalk or gypsum, all of which are dissolvable in acid. Maybe they are mud spots, which could contain clays which adhere to the car paint. If a toilet bowl cl …
answered Jul 2 by James Gaidis
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Something has the concentration of 10^-9 molar. What? The concentration of added OH-. If added [OH-] = 10^-9, then the original concentration of OH- (10^-7 at 25 C) will increase, to a first approxi …
answered Mar 4 '18 by James Gaidis
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The underlying redox pair is, as you say, Pb2+ +2e− --> Pb and has standard potential of −0.1263 V. But standard potential is for 1 M concentration. If you look at the "underlying" reaction, you mus …
answered Jun 16 '18 by James Gaidis
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Your stomach pH is in the range of 1 to 3 (Wikipedia). If it goes into the very acidic rage and you develop heartburn, antacids can be used to raise the pH and soothe the irritation. Antacids aren't …
answered Jan 22 by James Gaidis
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It has been claimed that skin has a pH of about 5.5. Of course, this must be the sweat coming out of your skin, since skin isn't a liquid. So many body washes add citric acid to their formulas to be m …
answered Mar 3 '18 by James Gaidis
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Alkaline etching of glass tends to be less rapid than HF and leaves a smoother surface. This may not be what you do for the first etch on fresh glass, but it may smooth out the etch somewhat after an …
answered May 29 by James Gaidis
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Glycolic acid (hydroxyacetic, HOCH2CO2H) is a mild organic acid, not very expensive, and the calcium salt is quite soluble. It is essentially a non-smelly vinegar! It has been used for brick washing. …
answered Feb 5 '18 by James Gaidis

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