Sodium is a difficult ion to estimate at home.

Since *most* sodium salts are water-soluble, [colorimetric](https://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/i560116a029?src=recsys) or [spectroscopic](https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2014-9055) methods are often employed, both of which I assume are not within arms' reach.

**Some alternatives:**

1. Speaking of sodium estimation in foodstuff, it is usually determined by [Mohr's
method](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Argentometry#Mohr_method) which involves the precipitation titration of \$\ce{Cl-}\$ ions. **This is done under the assumption that sodium is mainly present as sodium chloride. Additionally, it will also register \$\ce{Cl-}\$ from other chlorides, and hence may give an elevated reading.** You *might* be able to do this at home. Here is a [page](https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/90e7/ac0f90bf50c0cbf0811242dc59c436008e2a.pdf)

It is done in the presence of chromate ion (\$\ce{CrO4^2-}\$), and \$\ce{Ag+}\$ ions are added gradually. This precipitation happens initially:

\$\$\ce{Ag+ + Cl- <=> AgCl(s)}\$\$

When the solution runs out of \$\ce{Cl-}\$ ions, precipitation of the red-brown \$\ce{Ag2CrO4}\$ begins:

\$\$\ce{Ag+ + CrO4^2- <=> Ag2CrO4(s)}\$\$

This signals the end point.

2. There are sodium ion meters, you can get them for ~300\$.

3. There is a volumetric estimation[1] for sodium directly, but it is not expedient to do it. It is based on the precipitation of sodium zinc uranyl acetate.

**Conclusions**

IMO it is difficult to do this as a home project, as it will require stuff that is not usually found at home.

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**References**

[1] J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1931,  53, 9, 3288-3291 [DOI: 10.1021/ja01360a011](https://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/ja01360a011)