# All Questions

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### Can a solid and liquid be miscible?

To be specific, what I mean is: is the following situation possible? At given temperature T, there are two substances, X and Y, such that pure X is a solid, pure Y is a liquid, and X and Y mix to form ...
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### Why does nitrous acid exhibit (unexpectedly) different bond angles?

Data Point 1 - quantum chemical calculations http://nzc.iap.ac.cn/uploadpdf/Wang_et_al._CSB_2007a.pdf Key points in paper: There is some sort of interaction between the hydrogen and the terminal ...
919 views

### Applying the Le Chatelier principle

I am having issues understanding the consequence(s) of a decrease in pressure on a chemical reaction. I have understood that when we increase the pressure, the side having more number of moles wants ...
857 views

### Which is the correct way to name pentan-3-one?

I have seen this organic compound named in two different ways. According to some sources it is written pentan-3-one.. Other sources call it 3-pentanone. Which one is correct?
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### Why are methanol flames less visible than other flames?

The combustion of methanol tends to generate flames that are less visible than the flames generated by the combustion of other substances? My guess is that methanol burns quickly as it has a ...
7k views

### Why is formic acid considered an acid if it is a reducing agent?

My understanding was that since the acceptance of Lavoisier's revised Easter Memoir of 1778, all acids were understood to be oxidising agents.* However, formic acid is often listed as a reducing ...
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### What properties does a solvent with a high dielectric constant have?

My professor commented that water has a higher dielectric constant than alcohol. Okay, but on what basis? He didn't elaborate; he asked us which one seemed "more electric" and most answered water. ...
2k views

### Coefficients and Parameters for contracted Gaussian basis sets

I'm trying to write a program to calculate fixed-point Hartree-Fock level energies of molecules (for my amusement) and everything makes sense but this. I've been agonizing over this for almost 3 hours ...
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### What are the priorities for substituent groups on a cyclohexane?

I was wondering about this specific scenario: If you have a cyclohexane, for example, and the cyclohexane has two consecutive substituent groups, for example a methyl group and an ethyl group, how do ...
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### Rate-determining step and steady state approximation failure

1) When can't the rate-determining step be applied, and why? How do you recognize these cases? 2) When can't the steady state approximation be applied, and why?
528 views

### Detection of magnesium in a buffer?

I have a PolyA tailing kit for putting PolyA tails on the 3' end of RNA. The kit comes with a proprietary 5X buffer and a 25mM MnCl2 solution, and in the standard set up I use 20uL of 5X buffer and ...
195 views

### Using non-food grade NaOH for pH control

I would like to use non-food grade $\ce{NaOH}$ for $\ce{pH}$ water treatment. Any problem with this mixing with water that contains iron? The $\ce{NaOH}$ will be pumped into a well. As a $25\%$ ...
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### Biological Consequences of Asteroid Mining—Death by Isotope?

It's been documented that NASA hope to capture an asteroid in 2025, and have subsequent aims to mine that asteroid. If if this is successful, we would expect other asteroids to be mined in the future. ...
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### How does sulfuric acid dehydrate sugars?

I know sugars have $\ce{-OH}$ groups, and that sulfuric acid is a strong acid. What I'm failing to see is how exactly sulfuric acid dehydrates sugars. Does it protonate the hydroxyl groups, making ...
1k views

### Sulfur Trioxide - Ionic Character

I am told that the sulfur trioxide molecule exhibits charge separation because of poor p-orbital overlap. Sulfur's 3p orbitals are much bigger than oxygen's 3p orbitals, and thus the $\ce{S=O}$ bond ...
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### Amount of Phenolphthalein required

We just had chemistry practical few days a go. The topic was strong acid-base titration, in which we had to find the normality and concentration of $\ce{HCl}$. My teacher instructed me to add 2 drops ...
806 views

### Nitration of Aromatic Compounds

I am told by Dr. Klein that in the nitration of benzene, hydrogen sulfate anion acts as the base and deprotonates the sigma complex. My question is why would the hydrogen sulfate anion be doing the ...
86 views

### How can I measure carcinogenic risks of an M-ENDO-Agar LES substrate after heat destruction?

I'm about to conduct a study of possible toxic traces from the substance M-ENDO-Agar LES in substrate after destruction with heat (I think it is 160℃) for 180 minutes. The substance is carcinogenic. ...
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### Why is chloride oxidised instead of water in copper chloride electrolysis?

For the Electrolysis of Copper Chloride: Cathode: $\ce{Cu^{2+} + 2e- <=> Cu}$ Anode: $\ce{2Cl <=> Cl2 + 2e- }$ I am confused about the reaction taking place at the anode. Wouldn't \$\ce{...
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### Delocalization of positive charge

How is positive charge delocalized? I understand how negative charge can be delocalized. Electrons are mobile and they can move around. But what about positive charge? For example, consider this ...
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### How many empty orbitals do elements have?

A student was contemplating a question regarding elements with "no empty valence orbitals." An argument was made that elements all have infinite number of valence orbitals. Every atom basically ...
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### Which has higher rate of hydrogenation - methyl propene or trans-2-butene?

Which has higher rate of hydrogenation- methyl propene or trans-2-butene? I know that cis-2-butene has a higher rate of hydrogenation than both of these due to steric reasons, but here, both of these ...