# All Questions

37,125 questions
Filter by
Sorted by
Tagged with
457 views

### How are electronic configurations including hybrid orbitals notated?

I know the general scheme for notating electronic configurations is (with s and p orbitals) [noble gas core]nsel.$n$pel. etc., where $n$ is the principal quantum number and el. is the number of ...
17k views

### Why exception is noted in the solubility of lead salts?

There are many exception in the solubility of lead salts like: Lead sulfate is insoluble in cold water whereas most of the sulfates are soluble in cold water. Lead chloride is also insoluble in cold ...
9k views

### Should bromine water be called a solution?

Bromine water is a reagent which is used to test for unsaturation in organic compound. It is $2.8~\%$ bromine in water. In many places, it is refer to as bromine solution. But it is observed that ...
8k views

### Abnormal deviation of CO2 from ideal gas behaviour [closed]

Why does carbon dioxide show larger abnormal deviation from ideal gas behaviour than other gases. Why does carbon dioxide first show negative deviation and then positive?
1k views

### Stability of alkenes by hyper conjugation

I have learnt that for carbocations, electrons are delocalized from the $\ce{C-H}$ $\sigma$-bond to the empty p-orbital of carbon. Moreover, alkenes are stabilized by the delocalization of electron ...
513 views

### Thermodynamics entropy and temperature

In thermodynamics, whenever heat is released from the system to the surroundings, temperature of surroundings remains unchanged but entropy increases. But entropy is a function of temperature. How is ...
2k views

### Different possible Lewis structures of peroxymonosulfate anion

I was trying to draw the Lewis structure of $\ce{HSO5-}$ (peroxymonosulfate), so I came up the structure on the left that satisfies the octet rule. Then, I saw that the correct structure is the one on ...
3k views

### Do electron donating groups make a molecule nucleophilic?

Do electron donating groups make a molecule nucleophilic? One group, the alkyl group in this example, is electron donating in $\ce{CH3CH2O-}$. Will the molecule be nucleophlic?
354 views

### What are the dangers of melting HDPE and silicone? Is it even possible?

I've searched the internet and couldn't find a specific answer. There doesn't seem to be a single recycling company that takes empty silicone tubes (also know as mastic tubes) and recycles them. As a ...
3k views

### Why is diene more reactive than alkene?

The chemical reduction of 1,3-butadiene with sodium in alcohol gives mainly the 1,4-addition product that is but-2-ene. Under these condition the isolated double bond are not reduced. This suggest ...
63 views

### Is this structure make-able?

I was wondering if it would be possible to make this chemical?
71 views

### Is there such thing as too much fermentation

When you make a wine the more you age it the better the taste. But is there such a thing as too much fermentation where it makes the wine taste worse? If not is there a time where fermentation doesn't ...
1k views

### Three general questions in silanization of a glass surface

For silanization, I put a glass slide horizontally and pour the silan solution on it to cover the glass surface. Then I leave it for a specific time and then wash with water and acetone. I have ...
1k views

### Cat litter crystals causing toxic smell upon rubbing and pouring out of the package, safe?

I am under-educated in terms of chemistry hence the question and assumptions. Basically, for our cats, we are using what seems to be the latest scientific achievement in litter sand - the litter ...
718 views

### Stereoisomerism in 1,2-cyclobutanediol

For 1,2-cyclobutanediol, it's given in my book that it has 3 stereo isomers. Here's the passage: My questions: How can it have stereo-isomers? What will the meso compounds look like?
485 views

### overall energy and the boiling point

i need help with the fractional distillation method of a couple of substances at least more than two substances , just like air actually what am i looking for is that why do substances in air with a ...
4k views

### Is FeS2 both an ionic and covalent compound? [duplicate]

Iron (II) disulfide. Iron pyrite. Fool's gold to some. But what bond does it fall under? It could possibly be used for both? This would give a deeper understanding into other like examples, where ...
2k views

### boiling point and distillation relation

i need help with the fractional distillation method of a couple of substances at least more than two substances , just like air actually what am i looking for is that why do substances in air with a ...
279 views

### Why we have mass of adsorbent in Freundlich equation?

In Freundlich equation why we have $m$ the mass of adsorbent. I mean it is surface chemistry and on the surface of adsorbent the adsorption takes place so why we have mass of adsorbent in that ...
80 views

### Need to chemically heat water

I have a holding tank on rv, non potable water that I need to heat up to drain . I live in northern Alberta, so the average temperatures are -20. I don't want to wreck anything or gas myself out. I am ...
609 views

### Ostwald Law of dilution makes no sense

According to wikipedia the Ostwald's dilution law says that for a weak acid $K_{d}={\cfrac {[A^{+}][B^{-}]}{[AB]}}={\frac {\alpha ^{2}}{1-\alpha }}\cdot c_{0}$ when I read the derivation of it ,I ...
89 views

### Experimenting with electrochromic prussian blue

I am attempting to preform this experiment. Chemistry isn't really my cup of tea, so I have a couple questions. The instructions say to provide 40µA per cm2, where does that number come from? The ...
46 views

### Sulfur atomic absorption

Would the atomic absorption from FAA for Sulfur be from 3s2 -> 3p4 or 3p4 -> 4s0? I think according to the electronic partition function, there would be zero electrons in the 4s0 state at the ...
116 views

### About how much carbon monoxide is produced in these two different reations?

The U.S. Department of Agriculture produces a gas cartridge to poison subterranean rodents. The product is provided as a cardboard tube sealed at one end and then loaded with a mixture of 144.6 grams ...
1k views

### Absolute configuration in stereochemistry: R/S nomenclature

I have all the rules of Fischer projections figured out. But, when the problem asks for finding the configuration of a molecule with 1 chiral carbon and in a Fischer projection form, do we need first ...
701 views

### Stability of isomers of N4O

I have googled and found that the structure of $\ce{N4O}$ is linear with a positive and negative charge on 2 nitrogen atoms. But, the following structure seems more stable because it fulfils octet for ...
338 views

### Why was the Deville process of Alumina production given up in favor of the Bayer process?

I guess this is a sort of historical question. The DeVille process seems fairly simple. Does anybody know the history or practical reasons for the switch?
13k views

### Why is the Friedel-Crafts alkylation of nitrobenzene disfavoured?

Suggest a synthetic route to m-nitrotoluene, starting from benzene. The conversion can be achieved in two ways: $\hspace{10 mm}$ or: However, the first route is not possible as the Friedel-Crafts ...
95 views

### Aren't unit cell and the relevant crystal similar?

"A crystal is formed by a large number of repetitions of basic pattern of particles in space. The basic structural unit which when repeated in three spatial directions generates the crystal ...
66 views

### Detect a baked diamond?

Diamond suppliers often "bake" stones. This causes them to expel yellow-causing nitrogen and become white, but also makes them more brittle. A baked diamond can often be recognized by its unnatural ...
3k views

### How to calculate the sufficient ratio of acid and corresponding base of the indicator that allows to clearly observe the endpoint of a titration?

Ram can see the purple colour of an acidic indicator below pH = 5.5 only and the blue colour only above pH = 8.5. How many times that of acidic form must the concentration of the basic form at least ...
1k views

### How to distinguish between carbon-carbon double bond lengths?

Which of the following compounds should have the longest carbon-carbon double bond? $\ce{CH2=C=CH2}$ $\ce{H3C-CH=CH2}$ $\ce{(H3C)3-C-CH=CH2}$ $\ce{(H3C)2C=CH2}$ I know that single ...
11k views

### Addition of HOBr across C=C

Source: Carey Advanced Organic Chemistry B, problem 4.1 b Looking for interesting problems about addition to C=C, I came across this in the back of Carey. It looks like a simple addition across ...
151 views

### Why does dry boiling discolor steel cookware?

I have a stainless steel kettle that I let boil dry. That is, I left it on a hot coil burner with nothing in it, and noticed a few minutes later that the bottom was red hot and smoking. To make ...
53 views

### Is conversion of L-glutamate to 6-phospho-D-gluconate a feasible reaction? [closed]

I want to know whether a reaction is feasible or not. Can L-Glutamate ($\ce{C5H9NO4}$) be converted to 6-Phospho-D-gluconate ($\ce{C6H13O10P}$) or vice versa in one step?
7k views

### What is the chemical test for identification of benzophenone?

How to identify that a unknown compound is benzophenone? My working:- First I added 2,4- DNP(2,4-Dinitrophenyl hydrazine) to the compound. Yellow-orange crystals were formed which indicated presence ...
4k views

### Does adding ice to sparkling mineral water extend the 'fizziness' of the solution before the drink goes flat?

To my understanding the carbonated beverage loses its $\ce{CO2}$ content as gas bubbles which gives the drink its 'fizziness'. The loss of $\ce{CO2}$ occurs due to the low solubility of carbonic acid ...
1k views

### Compounds that release carbon dioxide [closed]

What are some compounds that release carbon dioxide when heated, hydrated, or reacted with sodium, aluminum, silicon, or iron?
179 views

### What acid can remove Calcium in Ca2SiO4 to leave SiO2 (mostly)

What acid can remove calcium in $\ce{Ca2SiO4}$ to leave $\ce{SiO2}$ (mostly)? It seems that calcium silicate is stable in most acids, but I need to etch it and leave only silica (mostly).
616 views

### Is lithium L-threonate a potential brain medicine?

Lithium ions have known neuroprotective qualities. That would explain its therapeutic benefit in some mental disorders. It is also well known that lithium carbonate must be taken in toxic doses to get ...
980 views

### Galvanic corrosion: Copper, iron and aluminum in an automotive cooling system

I am building a small copper heat exchanger I am going to plumb into my coolant system. I'm afraid that the copper will corrode my aluminum radiator or iron engine through galvanic action via the ...
315 views

### van't hoff factor

Basically I was doing a freezing point depression question where enough information was given to calculate the van't Hoff factor(i) which was 1.86. Anyways the question was asking to calculate the ...
534 views

### Diastereoisomer of quinic acid and its proton NMR?

Question: Quinic acid, A, has the gross structure shown below: (i) Draw all the possible diastereoisomers of A and indicate which are chiral. (ii) Quinic acid is optically active and ...
100 views

### How can a sample that is in two different states be at a uniform temperature?

In my chemistry course, the professor has discussed how a sample that contains both solid and liquid water would be at 0 degrees Celsius no matter what the proportion of solid to liquid water is. I ...
384 views

### Is the reaction between powdered soap and water exothermic?

I have done a fair share of hand washing using powdered soaps and in the first few seconds after mixing the soap with water, I have in most cases felt a subtle warmth in my hands. Is it that the ...
117 views

### Coordinates for molecules except cartesian and zmatrix

Every program in theoretical chemistry that I know uses different ways of writing their input. The same holds true for writing the geometry of the molecules of interest. But they can all be reduced to ...
3k views

### Does a reaction have to have a rate determining step?

I am a bit confused about the concept of the rate determining step. From what I understand, a step in a reaction is the RDS if it meets the following requirements: It is the slowest step in a ...
294 views

### How to explain this acid-catalysed acetal rearrangement mechanistically?

I have spotted a protecting acetal group and thought this would undergo hydrolysis … My working is such: But I cannot get to the desired isomer. Could someone please help? (Diagrams would be very ...