Questions tagged [water]

For questions relating to water (H₂O), specifically its structure, properties, and uses in chemistry. For questions not about water but rather about solutions in water, use tags [aqueous-solution] or [solubility] instead.

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Can water be included in an ICE table if it is not the solvent and is a product?

The question that I have is whether you will count water in a Fischer esterification equilibrium problem where the equation is carboxylic acid + ethanol --> ethyl acetate + Water We need to find the ...
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355 views

Does iron in water become visible when being heated?

I'm using ground water to provide my daily needs: Laundry, bath, toilet, ... I don't use it as drinking water, but I do cook with it. What I noticed is that when using the water cold it appears as ...
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181 views

How do I convert this ion exchange capacity into water softening capacity?

I am researching for an extended experimental investigation into methods of water softening. One such method is the use of ion exchange resin. I have contacted the supplier of the resin for its ...
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316 views

How much water evaporates during a given time?

I read some questions such this for example and I asked me another question. Instead of only calculate how much time does it takes to have a cup of tea at room temperature, I'm asking how much time ...
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3k views

Heavy water dielectric constant

Why is heavy water less dielectric than normal water? Is it because of the fact that heavy water is more denser? I think it so because the dipole moment of heavy water is greater than normal water?
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173 views

What is the surfactant's role in the non-coalescence of water droplets?

I have recently seen many videos that talk about the noncoalescence of water droplets; however, I do not understand the purpose of adding surfactants into the water. From my knowledge (high school), ...
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303 views

Water condensation above dew point

Anyone who stores rust-prone instruments knows that even in temperature-controlled air spaces rust can form on uncoated steel. Since rust requires water, this suggests that water will condense out of ...
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109 views

How much Citric Acid to neutralise bicarbonate?

I live in an area with very hard water, where the bicarbonate in the water is 357 mg/L. I would like to add some citric to the tap water to bring it down to around 50mg/L, for the curious, this is ...
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309 views

Possible Method for Testing Ammonia (and Nitrite/Nitrate) Concentration in Water

I am designing an automated system testing device for my high school's aquaponics club. We need to test for a number of ion concentrations, including ammonia and nitrite/nitrate. In my research, the ...
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91 views

Why adding salt to kneading make it wetter?

Last week I tried a new recipe of pizza dough: 65mL of Water; 140g of Wheat Flour (typo 3); 7g of Yeast; 1 big spoon of Olive Oil; 25g of cooked potatoes; 1g of common salt; I think the recipe uses ...
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119 views

How to use zinc sulfide to produce hydrogen (via photolysis)

According to wikipedia, zinc sulfide added to water and then brought into the presence of (sun?) light will split the water into hydrogen and oxygen. Is this practical (for demonstration purposes) and ...
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127 views

NaCl water electrolysis without membrane, how measure the free chlorine concentration?

I'm trying to made electrolysis using water and NaCl. I need at the end a concentration of 2 g/l. How can I measure the free/active chlorine? Do you know a way to "measure" the chlorine during the ...
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253 views

What are the physical properties of exotic ice?

This chart shows the phases of water that form at various combinations of pressures and temperatures. It has multiple exotic forms of ice (labeled II through XV) listed. What are the physical ...
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337 views

Is the reaction between powdered soap and water exothermic?

I have done a fair share of hand washing using powdered soaps and in the first few seconds after mixing the soap with water, I have in most cases felt a subtle warmth in my hands. Is it that the ...
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25 views

Fluid Separation

I've been trying to find a way to prevent cornstarch and water from separating. If I'm right, emulsifiers are used to prevent fluid seperation with oils, but will an emulsifier fix my problem too? If ...
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277 views

Water Droplet permeability through Graphene Oxide

TL;DR: The above image is an over simplified model to my question begging to know whether the permeation behavior exhibited by water droplets through graphene oxide is the top image or the bottom. I ...
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Trend in results for reproducibility of iron and phosphate

Periodically in our lab, we have a reproducibility test for the various samples that we analyze. One such sample is boiler water. Two of the parameters that we test are phosphate in boiler water and ...
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59 views

Why does this reaction take place in terms of electronic structure?

I need to know, in terms of electronic charge - the electrophiles and nucleophiles involved - how the electronegativity of the potassium and hydrogen atoms alongside the hydroxide and H+ ions result ...
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73 views

How to produce hot water-soluble soap balls? What is their chemical background? What about medical capsules?

There are water-soluble balls for soap baths. Then there are medical capsules that disappear in mouth. Is it possible do this kind of capsules and water-soluble containers at home? If not, what do I ...
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366 views

What is electrodialysis and is electrolysis prevented or suppressed?

Recently, I was introduced to a method of desalinization called electrodialysis in which a current was applied to salt water in such a way that the positive and negative were separated and drawn ...
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120 views

How effectively bound Na2CO3 and BaCL2 water

How fast does $\ce{BaCl2}$ bind water from its surroundings, becoming a hydrate, compared with same process with $\ce{Na2CO3}$?
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758 views

Selectivity Coefficients of Ion Exchange Resins - Selectivity Reversal with TDS / Ionic Strength

I'm currently studying ion exchange resins and generally getting a bit stuck on some points of information which I do not fully understand / are not very well explained within the literature. I ...
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1answer
102 views

What is the solublity of water in liquid carbon dioxide at low temperature?

The solubility of water in liquid carbon dioxide has been investigated by Hosmer W. Stone in 1943 from -29 to about 22 °C. Is there any research done on the solubility of water in liquid $\ce{CO2}$ ...
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1answer
42 views

Will charcoal briquettes (not activated) absorb water out of the air in the house in a subtropical climate?

I live in Florida, an incredibly wet environment where it's very difficult to get moisture out of house without using a dehumidifier 24/7, which is too expensive. Would charcoal briquettes be of any ...
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23 views

coffee concentrate and water separated after 2 hours. How/why?

I'm asking because this makes no sense to me and making sure I'm not stupid. I brewed 10 gallons of cold brew concentrate(TDS 12.2) and mixed it with 10 gallons of water. I moved 10 gallons of the ...
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25 views

How do you remove lumps in reagents without contaminating them?

I think desiccating the powdered reagent would help remove lumps (at least in preventing lump neoformation) but would desiccation alone collapse all lumps in a powder (say KCl as it lumps easily), or ...
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DHA’s for tanning and water

I’m trying to make my own bath soak for fake tanning and have run into a road block with DHA’s as they (for lack of a better word) don’t agree with water! Is there a way I can fix this so that I can ...
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26 views

Why does energy need to be “compensated” in order for solvation to occur?

I am currently learning about the physical properties of alcohols. I understand that the main intermolecular forces between alcohols and water are hydrogen bonds. When these two are mixed, the ...
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40 views

water molecule orbitals in MO=LCAO theory

In the picture below I have evaluated the combinations of atomic orbitals which belong to the same symmetry specie using the standard method with the character table. Now I think that in order to ...
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18 views

Scrubbing CO2 from atmospheric tank air supply

I am speccing a system for highly purified water which will be stored in an atmospheric tank. The tank comes with HEPA filters that will keep out things like dust, spores and bacteria, however, CO2 ...
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371 views

Why does hydration enthalpy decreases instead of increasing down the group?

I have seen in my text book that for group 1 and 2 metals the hydration enthalpy decreases down the group.The reason I have found on the postWhich d-block cation has the maximum hydration enthalpy? is ...
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20 views

Different machines testing for same thing

For a chemistry report, we were given a sample of water and a variety of machines to test it with - giving their respective results about whatever aspect they were testing (eg pH, metal ion ...
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179 views

Numerical related to crystallisation of water below its freezing point

Question: There is $16\ \mathrm g$ of pure water in a container at temperature $-20\ \mathrm{^\circ C}$. A small piece of ice is added to start crystallization. Amount of water in container when ...
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46 views

Can Water Oxidize Cu(I) to Cu(II)

Is DI water (also without $\ce{O2}$ gas dissolved in it after degasification) a sufficiently strong oxidizer to oxidize $\ce{Cu(I)}$ in $\ce{Cu2O}$ to $\ce{Cu(II)}$ forming $\ce{CuO}$? Will this ...
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254 views

Soluble or insoluble?

In the picture attached here, is the compound in water soluble or insoluble? I get confused while identifying solubility of a solute in a solvent when a situation like this arrises. The crystals of ...
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54 views

Can I freeze water at 100 °C if I add 28 grams NaCl in 100 grams water?

Can I freeze water at 100 °C if I add 28 grams NaCl in 100 grams water at 20 °C? I found this diagram that says, if I have 28.05 wt% NaCl in water, then the equilibrium temperature between two phases ...
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76 views

Is that true that if we reduce the Cl in water will reduce the saltiness of water?

I just move to some place near the ocean and I dig a weld and the water taste is a little bit salty (not as salty as sea water but there are salty taste). Then, I bring the water to the lab and there ...
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93 views

Name of the substance on which water cannot stay?

There is a show on discovery, 'You have been warned.'. In that show, once I remember seeing an unusual substance, when, on water was poured in it, even on a perfectly straight (non-slanting) table, ...
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435 views

Interaction between Ozone and Carbon Dioxide

We are trying to predict what will happen when carbon dioxide gas is introduced into a contact chamber that serves as an ozone contact chamber. These contact chambers presently oxidize compounds found ...
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141 views

How the heat a large amount of water that is safe to use?

I would like to know how heat up a large amount of water ( assumption : 100 liter ) that people could use to take their bath and also it would not be dangerous even if they accidentally ingested it ? ....
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N-methylacrylamide (NMAM) vs N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM): expected difference in effects on water structure

The only difference between these two is the group attached to the Nitrogen: in NIPAM, it's isopropyl, while in NMAM it's methyl. In a study on aqueous NIPAM, it was shown that the isopropyl groups ...
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How does HCl dissolve in water if the intramolecular force is stronger?

So what I know now is that the H in HCl is more positive and the Cl is more negative, while the H in H2O is more positive and the O is more negative. When HCl enters water, its more positive atoms (H) ...
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Why does dilution reduce the concentration of hydronium and hydroxide ions?

So my teacher gave us the definition of dilution: Mixing of an acid/base with $\ce{H2O}$ to reduce the concentration of $\ce{H+/OH-}$ ions per unit volume. But doesn't mixing an acid/base to water ...