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Why are sulfur trioxide and nitrate not isoelectronic, even though both have the same number of outer electrons?

Though $\ce{SO3}$ has the same number of outer electrons as $\ce{NO3-}$, the two are not isoelectronic. This statement is from JD Lee, but I could not understand why is he calling these two molecules ...
1
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0answers
24 views

Why do the d orbitals contract when pairing of electrons start, because the size should increase due to increase in energy

The energy of an orbital is proportional to its mean radial distance, and since the 3d orbital is much larger it is much higher in energy than the 3s and 3p orbitals All references from JD Lee ...
3
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1answer
725 views

Why do halogens have odd numbers as oxidation number?

Halogens like $\ce{Cl}$ always exhibit $+7,+5,+3,+1,-1$ as their oxidation numbers. I found the following answer after checking several sources: Halogen atoms have $7$ electrons in their valence ...
1
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0answers
162 views

The affect of effective nuclear charge on energy gap between subshells

A few days ago my teacher taught me about $\mathrm{d}$ orbital contraction. He said that in $\ce{SF6}$ the hybridization of sulphur is $\mathrm{sp^3d^2}$. He said that although the $\mathrm{d}$ ...
4
votes
2answers
146 views

Why does an element's chemical properties rely only on its valence electrons and not on anything else?

I understand that elements use their valence electrons for their reactions and whatnot, and that the whole idea of the electron-dot structure is all about valence electrons. But why can't the other ...
1
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1answer
87 views

My text seems to say that the high(est) energy orbitals are not valence orbitals - everything else says otherwise. What's true?

A paragraph in my text reads Bonding involves the valence orbitals almost exclusively because these orbitals have the appropriate energies to interact strongly. Examine the electron energy-level ...
5
votes
1answer
806 views

What properties of an element determines the maximum number of bonds it can make?

From my conjecture, I think it's a mix between valence electron and the principal energy state, but I'm not sure. For example, C, N, O and F can only make a maximum of four bonds, as they can only ...
1
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1answer
723 views

How to find the possible valence states of elements in the lower end of the d block and the f block?

For silver, why don't the electrons in the 4d orbital move to the 5p orbital? Is it possible for any elements to move their electrons between $n$d and $(n+1)$p orbitals? When the f orbital is ...
166
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8answers
131k views

Can an atom have more than 8 valence electrons? If not, why is 8 the limit?

According to some chemistry textbooks, the maximum number of valence electrons for an atom is 8, but the reason for this is not explained. So, can an atom have more than 8 valence electrons? If ...