Questions tagged [valence-bond-theory]

Questions about how the atomic orbitals of the dissociated atoms combine to give individual chemical bonds when a molecule is formed.

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Confusion about hybridization terminology

I was just introduced to the concept of orbital hybridization. I believe I understand the idea behind it, but there is some accompanying terminology that prevents me from achieving a greater ...
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Why N=N is much stronger than N—N but C=C isn't

Why N=N bond is much stronger than N—N bond (about 2.5 times) but C=C is not (less than 2 times)? IMO, the radius of nitrogen and carbon atoms play a big role here. Since rN < rC, the AOs creating ...
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46 views

Magnetic nature of tetraamminedichlorocobalt(III) chloride

I know how to predict magnetic nature when the compound contains only strong field or only weak field ligands. But in $\ce{[Co(NH3)4Cl2]Cl},$ $\ce{NH3}$ is a strong ligand whereas $\ce{Cl-}$ is a weak ...
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Is bonds in CO is all 3 coordinate bonds or 2 covalent and 1 coordinate bonds?

Below image is as available in India's Class 11 NCERT Chemistry book vol 1 Page 104. I am confused as it states all 3 bonds are kind of coordinate bonds. Should it not start with 2 covalent bonds and ...
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Why is the valency of the Calcium (Ca) Bohr model, set to 2 electrons, instead of 1 electron for stability? [duplicate]

This is an Ascii table for the elements on the 4th period (row) of the periodic table, and distribution of electrons in each orbit. ...
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139 views

What is the hybridization of chromium in chromate and dichromate ions?

I was recently reading about the transition metals and some important compounds of them. I came across a rather interesting diagram in my book... a tetrahedral structure for the chromate ion. The only ...
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74 views

Why are sulfur trioxide and nitrate not isoelectronic, even though both have the same number of outer electrons?

Though $\ce{SO3}$ has the same number of outer electrons as $\ce{NO3-}$, the two are not isoelectronic. This statement is from JD Lee, but I could not understand why is he calling these two molecules ...
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33 views

Why do the d orbitals contract when pairing of electrons start, because the size should increase due to increase in energy

The energy of an orbital is proportional to its mean radial distance, and since the 3d orbital is much larger it is much higher in energy than the 3s and 3p orbitals All references from JD Lee ...
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Bonding in the nitrate anion [duplicate]

Hi so I was studying chemical bonding where i encountered a problem which is stated below. When we talk about ${NO_3}^-$ we draw its structure as following But the thing which I dont understand is ...
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1answer
93 views

Bond dissociation energy among halogens [duplicate]

Among the halogens, why is it that the fluorine has the lowest bond dissociation enthalpy, considering the fact that fluorine is the smallest and the internuclear distance between the fluorine ...
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How one can calculate Si-O-Ca/Mg valence angle energy?

I want to perform the relaxed scan (or relaxed surface scan) for the valence angle energy of Si–O–Ca, Si–O–Mg, Al–O–Ca, and Al–O–Mg. I will use DFT (ORCA), probably B3LYP and triple zeta basis set (...
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Reason behind hybridisation [duplicate]

I have been taught that orbitals can overlap only when all of them are in the same energy state. That is the reason why the orbitals hybridise in a kind of 'mixing up' and give rise to orbitals having ...
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Is dihydrogen the only example of overlap between two s orbitals?

I heard that $\ce{H2}$ is the only example of s–s orbital overlap. Can anyone give an example which contradicts this statement?
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146 views

Can 2 dz2 orbitals form a π bond?

Usually , d orbitals overlap sideways along a common internuclear axis, but drawing and checking for dz2 , it always seems to form a sigma bond or null overlap. Is this because it doesn't have any ...
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79 views

Why are d(xy),d(yz) and d(xz) orbitals involved in d³s hybridisation?

Shouldn't d(x²-y²) dxy and dz² orbitals participate? Since this corressponds to the best case overlap? What factors decide the participating orbitals in hybridisation? P.S I am well versed with the ...
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Doubt regarding timeline of events and development of theories

I recently studied Zaitsev's and Hoffman's rules for deciding which product is formed via elimination and noticed that the rules for formulated much before the discovery of electrons and any ...
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178 views

Why is $1s-1s$ orbital overlapping stronger than $2p_x-2p_x$ orbital overlapping?

Assume the x-axis to be the internuclear axis. Hence, both $1s-1s$ and $2p_x-2p_x$ will form $\sigma$ bonds. Also consider the fact that $p$ orbitals have more directional characteristics. Given the ...
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Why is it not possible for seven close copper atoms to come together to gain a noble-gas configuration of valence electrons?

My textbook says the following about metallic bonding: The metal copper has one valence electron. The valence electrons of nearby copper atoms are shared in a similar way to covalently bonded ...
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How to Choose Orbitals for Hybridization

Recently, I was reviewing my textbook regarding orbital hybridization, and one of the problems was to determine the hybridization of each of the atoms in $\text{CO}_2$. I understand why the ...
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1answer
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Periodic Table and Atomic Radius

Well Wikipedia says that the atomic radius is lowered for elements in a group closer to noble gases (same row). It also says that those elements want to keep their valence electrons more than metals, ...
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Electric conductivity

Well I was wondering why some materials have a higher resistivity than others . So I took two elements randomly . I picked carbon and silicon . Carbon has lower resistivity than silicon and obviously ...
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378 views

Valence bond theory and molecular orbital theory — how do they complement one another?

Based on my readings, valence bond theory (VBT) and molecular orbital theory (MOT) tend to complement one another in explaining a molecule, but I don’t understand how VBT helps us explain the ...
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425 views

How do I explain these bond angles in SF4 and SOF4?

From here and here I found that the bond angle between the equatorial $\ce{F}$'s in $\ce{SF4}$ is less than that in $\ce{SOF4}$. I understand that is because of greater repulsion by lone pair than by ...
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407 views

Why does NH3 hybridize at all?

So in Chemistry class I've been taught that hybridization is a way we can explain things such as how $\ce{CH4}$, for example, forms four, equally strong bonds. However at the same time I'm told that ...
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162 views

Why is a carbon to iodine pi-bond less stable than a carbon to fluorine pi-bond?

This question comes from a second semester undergraduate organic chemistry course. Please refer to the image below with regard to the question. My understanding of the trend in section 4a is that "...
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1answer
145 views

Reason for shorter bond between sulphur and oxygen?

I recently came across this sentence in my textbook “the bonds between sulphur and oxygen in oxides of sulphur (SO2 and SO3 ) are much shorter than might be expected for a single bond” SO3 I feel ...
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1answer
370 views

Why is carbon monoxide a monodentate ligand

Carbon monoxide has lone pairs on both the carbon and the oxygen atoms. However, I have never seen any complex where the oxygen atom or both the oxygen and the carbon atoms are the donors. I know ...
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Dichlorine monoxide molecular geometry

I need to predict the geometry of Dichlorine monoxide, using the main link theory: Lewis model, VSEPR and hybridization of molecular orbitals. First, the Lewis structure is a graphical representation ...
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1answer
2k views

Bonding in Zeise's salt

I am not sure I completely understand the bonding in coordination compounds formed by donation of pi electron cloud by the ligands to the central atom. For example, consider Ziese's salt: I came ...
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1answer
135 views

How many equal Xe–O bond length are present in (XeO_6)-3? [closed]

I tried to solve this problem by drawing a structure but the structure did not give me any answer and I was not able to draw the proper structure please help me out.
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Why does aluminum in zeolites form tetrahedras? [closed]

It forms a bond with four oxygen atoms even though it has only there electrons in his outter shell?
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1answer
68 views

Molecular Geometry [duplicate]

Why is it that for a molecule with trigonal bipyramidal geometry, the lone pair is located in the equatorial region whereas for a molecular with an octahedral geometry, the lone pair is located in the ...
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Graphite: Thermal and electrical conductivity

I recently encounter this question: Compare, while providing an explanation, the thermal and electrical conductivity of graphite to that of diamond. Provided answer: Graphite conducts electricity(...
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191 views

The nature of Chemical Bonds [closed]

It was nearly a year ago when I appeared for my first interview through the KVPY (a research oriented scholarship exam) when one of the questions the panel asked me was : What is a chemical bond? ...
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1answer
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Ionization energy of C2-, C2, and C2+

My textbook says that $\ce{C_2}^-$ has a lower ionization energy than both $\ce{C_2}$ and $\ce{C_2}^+$. I calculated that the bond orders of $\ce{C_2}^+$, $\ce{C_2}$, and $\ce{C_2}^-$ are 1.5, 2, and ...
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Why is octet extra stable? [duplicate]

In chemistry, it is agreed in general that the octet is extremely stable, through experiments except in some cases. But is there any specific theoretical reasoning for that? According to me, if: ...
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Why don't I get the same value of percentage ionic character of a particular molecule from different equations?

About the ionic character of a polar covalent compound Pauling gave two equations as [1-$e^{.25(x_a - x_b)}] $% [18$(x_a-x_b)^{1.4}$]% Hanary and Smith gave the equation [$16(x_a-x_b)+3.5(x_a-...
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63 views

Using real wave functions for chemical bond explanation

My question related with another one here. For explanation valence bond direction chemists are used real wave functions, for example $p_x, p_y, p_z, \ldots$. But this functions do not describe the ...
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1answer
759 views

Why do halogens have odd numbers as oxidation number?

Halogens like $\ce{Cl}$ always exhibit $+7,+5,+3,+1,-1$ as their oxidation numbers. I found the following answer after checking several sources: Halogen atoms have $7$ electrons in their valence ...
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510 views

Why is the oxidation state of Carbon (-4)?

Based on my understanding, atoms try to achieve the electronic configuration of the nearest noble gas, by losing or gaining electrons. For example, Sodium is closest to Neon, so loses an electron so ...
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701 views

Where do the lone pairs go in the “true” resonance structure?

Consider the "true" resonance structure of $\ce{CO3^2-}$: The bottom diagram leaves out the 2 lone pairs, so 4 electrons disappeared in the bottom image as compared to the top one. Are these ...
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718 views

Do 1s & 2s orbitals overlap of different atoms while forming sigma bond? I

Do 1s & 2s orbitals overlap of different atoms while forming sigma bond? I think they should overlap as there will not be enough energy difference between them.
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384 views

Buckminsterfullerene double bonds [closed]

I am not now nor have I ever been a chemist. I'm practicing by drawing molecules in the Chemspider structure search tool. Today I drew buckminsterfullerene, in order also to test my 3D spatial ...
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How to calculate steric number of methyl free radical?

According to the definition, steric number = number of atoms it is attached + lone pair. In that way, I get 4 for methyl free radical which means sp3 hybridization . But that's wrong ! Why is this ...
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HCH bond angle in cyclopropane and cyclobutane

I understand why the $\ce{CCC}$ bond angles in cyclobutane and cyclopropane are less than ideal $109.5^\circ$ due to the geometric restrictions they encounter in a cyclic structure. However, it is not ...
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997 views

Why are d orbitals used in the hybridisation of PCl5 and similar compounds? [duplicate]

Phosphorus uses its $\ce{3s}$, three $\ce{3p}$ and one $\ce{3d}$ orbitals for its hybridization in $\ce{PCl5}$ and similar compounds. However, shouldn't it use its $\ce{4s}$ rather than $\ce{3d}$ ...
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How can the hybridisation schemes of transition metal complexes be determined?

Lets say I have to find hybridisation of $\ce{[Ni(CO)_4]}$ and $\ce{[Ni(CN)_4]^{2-}}$. The metal atom/ion in these compounds are $\rm Ni$ and $\rm Ni^{2+}$ respectively. So the outer shell ...
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The affect of effective nuclear charge on energy gap between subshells

A few days ago my teacher taught me about $\mathrm{d}$ orbital contraction. He said that in $\ce{SF6}$ the hybridization of sulphur is $\mathrm{sp^3d^2}$. He said that although the $\mathrm{d}$ ...
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320 views

Hybridisation and bond strength

I'm a high school student with minimal mathematical knowledge about the theory of chemical bond. (I just have a bit of theoretical background). I came across a statement which stated that "The more is ...
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Determining the structure of N2O using hybridization

I have learnt how to determine the structure of molecules where only the central atom is hybridised like $\ce{ClF3}$, $\ce{C2H2}$, $\ce{PCl5}$, but in $\ce{N2O}$ it seems as though both nitrogen and ...