# Questions tagged [units]

For questions about the definition and usage of units of measurement.

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### What is the equivalence of 40 ppt to pg/mL? [closed]

Please help me converting 40 ppt to pg/mL. I have tried an online calculator and done it manually and there are differences. I`m aware that ppt can be used as parts per trillion or per thousand but I ...
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### Up to which dilution can one assume that 1 mg/l = 1 ppm?

For aqueous solutions it is often assumed that 1 milligram per liter equals 1 ppm. Are there any guidelines up to which concentration this shortcut is admissible? Are there any formulas which ...
476 views

### Can I express the rate of a reaction as percent per second (%/s)?

Rate is calculated as change in concentration over change in time, so usually $\pu{M/s}$ $(\pu{mol L-1 s-1}).$ Say, I'm calculating it for $20\%$ solution of ammonium hydroxide, so my final rate is ...
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### Amount of substance expressed in yoctomole units

I stumbled upon a couple of papers where amounts were expressed in yoctomoles ([ymol], $\pu{10^{-24} mol}$) and I find it somewhat bothersome as 1 ymol would correspond to about 60% of atom/molecule/...
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### Regarding units of water potential and chemical potential

If water potential is nothing but the chemical potential of a given solution, then why do their units differ? If the unit for the latter is taken as 'Energy per molecule' (which makes sense to me ...
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### About the use of Pascal or atmosphere in chemistry

I was wondering if there are specific formulae in chemistry for which it is "compulsory" or convenient to use atmosphere (atm) rather than Pascal (or even mmHg) as a unit of measurement. Of course ...
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### What is the use of both mol and mass representing the same thing i.e. amount of something? [closed]

A mol is a unit but also has a magnitude. How can a unit have a magnitude? And if mole is used to measure an amount of substance than what does mass measure?
2k views

### Can Rydberg constant be in joules?

In my textbook (Chemistry Part - I for Class XI published by NCERT), there is an equation for the energy of an electron in an energy state: $$E_n = -R_\mathrm H\left(\frac{1}{n^2}\right)$$ and there ...
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### Meaning of mass concentration “units” % m/v [closed]

In a saline solution that is 5.750% (m/v) potassium iodide $(\ce{KI}),$ there are: a) 5.750 mL $\ce{KI}$ per 100.0 mL $\ce{H2O}$ b) 575.0 mg $\ce{KI}$ per 10.00 mL of $\ce{KI}$ solution c) 5....
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### Interlayer binding energy: how to convert to meV/Å²?

I've noticed that in most papers the interlayer binding energy is given in units of meV/Å². But how do I get these units? Do I divide the interlayer binding energy I get by the area of my unit cell?
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### Soil conductivity: How do I get a near equivalent between meq/100 g to mS/cm?

I have two soil reports, one that reports CEC as 45 meq/100 g and another that reports 6 mS/cm using 1:1 water soil. I can see that the two are, if not apples and oranges, they are at best tangerines ...
171 views

### How do I convert salinity measured in mg/L Cl into parts per thousand as NaCl?

I have collected water data using a refractometer that records salinity in ‰ (parts per thousand) as $\ce{NaCl}$. I want to compare my data to other data but every journal article I read has the ...
131 views

### How will the periodic table change due to redefinition of the kilogram (May 2019)?

The definition of a kilogram has recently been changed. What effect, if any, will this change have on data on the periodic table?
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### How to correctly write “7 apples” according to the international system of units (SI)

According to international system of units (SI), we can write "7 kg of apples" to refer to the mass of these apples. However, if we want refer to the amount of apples, that is, the number of ...
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### Is the kilogram still consistent with the old definition?

My old understanding was that a gram is the amount of mass in a cubic centimeter of water. But then I recently learned that the second was redefined to be some 9 billion cycles of a Caesium atom. ...
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### Barron states that 4.18×10⁸ joules equal 1 kcal, is this correct?

Here is a paragraph in Barron's SAT chemistry prep book: Work itself is measured in Joules, and so is energy. In some problems, however, energy may be expressed in kilocalories. The relationship ...
944 views

### How are lowercase m and uppercase M used in general chemistry courses? [closed]

Where do lowercase m and uppercase M make appearances in general chemistry, and what do they signify?
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### How are lowercase k and uppercase K used in general chemistry courses? [closed]

Where do lowercase k and uppercase K make appearances in general chemistry, and what do they signify?
550 views

### Units of rate constant (cycles per second vs radians per second) in Eyring equation

In the Eyring equation (EE), $$k = \frac{k_\mathrm B T}{h} \exp\left(\frac{-\Delta G_{\mathrm f}}{RT}\right),$$ the units of $k$ are $\mathrm{s^{-1}}$. However, in general rate constants are usually ...
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### What units do I use for energy in the Boltzmann distribution?

I am a mathematics student doing a course in thermodynamics and am working on the basics now. The question I am asked is: Suppose two states differ in energy by one electronvolt. What can be said ...
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### IUPAC Recommendations for Concentration Units (ppb, ppm)

In a recent interesting post, (Is 1 ppb equal to 1 μg/kg?) it was pointed out that IUPAC advises to abandon parts per million, parts per billion quantities and instead it suggests to employ micromole/ ...
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### Is 1 ppb equal to 1 μg/kg?

In an article I recently submitted, a reviewer asked that I provide a concentration in μg/kg instead of ppb (parts per billion), and mentions that the later is not correct. I am not a chemist, and I ...
531 views

### How to determine omitted units in a publication

I have found a 1954 paper in J. Am. Chem. Soc. which gives various temperatures in degrees but does not specify units. A snippet of the introduction is: Titanium reacts appreciably with fluorine ...
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### How to actually calculate work from force times distance?

I understand that work = force $\cdot$ distance, but I'm not sure of the units and conversions to use. What I know is that I have a piston head of area $\pu{28cm^2}$ (~$\pu{4.4in^2}$) traveling a ...
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### Conversion from a PPB value to µg/m3 of Isobutylene

I have a quite simple problem, found a lot of information about it, but I am not sure anymore if I do my calculations right. I own a sensor, which reports measurements in isobutylene units as PPB. So ...
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### Combination of several unit symbols when finding new pressure from ideal gas law

As a car is driven, the tires heat up and the volume and the pressure change. Calculate the new pressure of a 35.0 L tire initially at 235 kPa that expands to 36.5 L when it heats up from 15.0 °C to ...
655 views

### Effects of Changing Avogadro's Constant

The Avogadro project suggests that we redefine the Avogadro constant to be equal to our best known estimate, $N_\mathrm{A} = 6.02214179 \times 10^{23}$, and redefine the kilogram based on the Avogadro ...
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### Is the negative excess volume of ethanol/water the cause of my math error?

I have a binary mixture, say ethanol at $90\%wt$ ethanol, $10\%wt$ water. According to Perry's Chemical Engineers' Handbook 9th Ed., that mixture has a density of $0.81797g/cc$ (at $20^{\circ}C$). ...
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### What are the units of Kc and Kp?

They are both equilibrium constants as far as I know. Kc is in terms of molarity and Kp is in terms of pressure. Also both of them are ratios of respective quantities [ ratio of molarity(s) in Kc and ...
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### Confusion between moles and molarity units

I am a total newbie in the field and i would like some kind of guidance. So, I have been recently given 2 datasets with measurements regarding several phospholipid fatty acids of plasma HDL. Both ...
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### Rate constant converion [closed]

I need to calculate the half life for a first order reaction for which I need the rate constant $k$. From literature I observed that for a very closely simulated experiment I obtained the numerical ...
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### Convert pg/mL to/from pmol/L?

In this article, 148 pmol/L is said to be equivalent to 200 pg/mL. But this unit conversion site says that 200 pg/mL are equivalent to ~734 pmol/L, and this one gives 44 pmol/L for the same value. ...
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### What does the unit M stand for? [closed]

What does $\mathrm{M}$ signify in this pH calculation? To me, it just seems to be a random variable. For example: $\ce{[H+]} = 1.0\times10^{-7}~\mathrm{M}$ I am not sure what the $\mathrm{M}$ is ...
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### Converting pounds to grams [closed]

I wanted to figure out how many grams were to a lb and instead of looking it up I used my textbook and found 1 kg = 1000 g and 1 kg = 2.205 lb. I set up a cross multiplication equation to solve for x. ...
37k views

### What does the ‘−1’ superscript mean in units?

For example, the rate of a chemical reaction can be expressed in $\mathrm{mol}/\mathrm{L}^{-1}/\mathrm{sec}^{-1}$. Why is it ‘−1’ and not, say, ‘−2’? Does it change the meaning if the minus is removed ...
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### How to convert metre to ångström? [closed]

In my book it says Convert $1.213\cdot10^{-11}$ metre into Angstrom. The answer is $12.13\cdot10^{-2}$ Angstrom. How is it possible? I thought of multiplying the metre with $10^{-10}$, but I ...
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### What does atm•L mean? [closed]

In my chemistry book I always see a dot for units. For example, atm•L. Does this mean “1 atm per Liter?” By Atm I mean atmospheric pressure, not atom.
$$\ce{N2(g) + 3H2 (g) -> 2NH3(g)}$$ Calculate $K_\mathrm p$ from $K_\mathrm c$, given that $K_\mathrm c = \pu{4.2 M^-2}$ and that there is 0.2 moles of $\ce{N2}$, 0.6 moles of $\ce{H2}$ and 0....