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# Questions tagged [titration]

A laboratory method to determine the concentration of an analyte in solution. The solution volume plays a key role in the analysis.

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17k views

### Why is a theoretical titration curve higher than a practical one?

I'm currently in high school and I did two titrations. The first one is a titration of $10.0~\mathrm{mL}$ $0.1~\mathrm{M}$ $\ce{HCl}$ with $x~\mathrm{mL}$ $\ce{NaOH}$. I obtained the following ...
1k views

### Why are synthetic pH indicators used over natural indicators?

Synthetic indicators seem to be exclusively used when determining the pH of a substance with an indicator (with the exception of that school experiment where you boil cabbage to demonstrate natural pH ...
1k views

### How to analyze a acid and salt mixture using titrimetry?

Given a mixture of $\ce{HCl}$ and $\ce{MCl3}$ and the following dissociation constants for $\ce{M(OH)3}$, how can the concentrations of $\ce{HCl}$ and $\ce{MCl3}$ be determined separately by titrating ...
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### Shouldn't the pH at the equivalence point always be 7?

I learned in class that the equivalence point in an acid-base titration is reached when the solution contains an equal amount of substance of $\ce{OH-}$ and $\ce{H+}$ ions. However, in a weak acid and ...
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### Why is Borax used as a primary standard?

It's given in my book that borax is a useful primary standard for titrating against acids. I have heard that primary standard is a pure reagent and does not gain any weight by absorbing moisture. (...
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### Use of pipette during experiments for determination of oxygen by Winkler's method

We were performing estimation of $\ce{O2}$ by Winkler's method and we were told by the instructor that while adding $\ce{MnSO4}$ and $\ce{NaOH}$ / $\ce{KI}$ the pipette tip should be well below the ...
844 views

### What are the limitations of the Hendersson-Hasselbalch equation?

Our instructor told us that prior to the equivalence point, the $\mathrm{pH}$ of a solution is dependent on the HH equation. However, when I tried practicing for polyprotic acid titration, I came upon ...
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### Find the initial volume of the weak acid given a titration graph

Question: Below is a picture of a titration between a weak acid, $\ce{HA}$, and a 0.150 M $\ce{NaOH}$ solution. Find the initial volume of the weak acid in milliliters in this titration. My ...
17k views

### How do we calculate N factor and why is it useful in calulations?

I don't understand the concept of N factor at all. Why is it important? I know that it is something dependent upon the oxidation number, for example N factor of Na would be 1 since it has oxidation ...
39k views

### Calculating Buffer Capacity

I completed a titration of Ammonium Acetate buffer solution and to it I added $\pu{2M}$ Hydrochloric Acid. I measured the initial $\ce{pH}$ of the buffer solution before any acid was added and I ...
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### Why are strong acids and bases not suitable as primary standards?

This is one of the questions with which I have puzzled over, and can arrive at no definite conclusion. Why are strong acids or bases, such as $\ce{H2SO4}$,$\ce{ HNO3}$, $\ce{HCl}$, and $\ce{NaOH}$ not ...
313 views

### What is the meaning of cmmol in chemistry?

I came across a unit called $\text{cmmol dm}^{-3}$ in buffer solutions. What does this unit mean?
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### How did early chemists measure concentrations and purity?

My chemistry teacher loves going back through the history of famous chemists. This got me wondering how these chemists would first determine the concentration of a sample before they had any other ...
557 views

### How can one optimise the formation of copper acetate?

Mixing solid copper, $5\%$ vinegar, and hydrogen peroxide ($\ce{H2O2}$) causes copper acetate to form. The process will occur very slowly without hydrogen peroxide. Adding $\ce{H2O2}$ speeds the ...
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### Brown color at end point during titration with phenolphthalein as indicator

We did a titration experiment at school and I did not understand one part of it. The scenario: Titrate : White wine (ethanoic acid) Titrant: $\ce{NaOH}$ Indicator: Phenolphthalein What happened:...
235 views

### How to derive the conductivity titration curve which accounts for salt formation

I derived an equation that gave me the volume of base required to get a certain $\mathrm{pH}$: In a titration between a weak acid $\ce{HA}$ and weak base $\ce{B}$ (adding base into acid solution) the ...
2k views

### Weighing by difference

When preparing a known mass of something (e.g. when producing a standard solution) it is often that in my school lab that we first use a weighing boat to measure the mass and then once transferred ...
12k views

### Sodium carbonate titration in presence of phenolphthalein

Why phenolphthalein cannot show the endpoint for the complete titration of Na2CO3 with only phenolphthalein? What's the reason that we consider only half of the moles of sodium carbonate when ...
8k views

### Why, in titration, is universal indicator not commonly used?

My teacher said that we always used indicators such as methyl red, methyl orange, litmus, phenolphthalein, etc. rather than universal indicator. I don't understand why, though, would not universal ...
3k views

### How is the the law of chemical equivalence defined and what are its limitations?

I've heard that the law of chemical equivalence states that the gram equivalence of each of the reactants equals the gram equivalence of each of the products. But I'm facing difficulties in ...
102 views

### How much additional hydrochloric acid should be added to arrive at ‘excess acid’?

I am an IB student. And I am trying to find the mass percentage of $\ce{NaHCO3}$ in antacid. I am dissolving the antacid in $\pu{0.1 M}$ $\ce{HCl}$ solution. So, first of all I conducted some ...
682 views

### How to calculate the concentration of conjugate acid from given pH and pKa values?

Preface: Buffer solution (acid-base buffer). I am provided with a weak base, which I will designate B. $\mathrm{p}K_\mathrm{a}$ for $\ce{B}$'s conjugate acid, which I will designate $\ce{BH}$, is $8.1$...
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### What is causing the buffer region in a weak acid - strong base titration?

For the buffer region in this, why does it stop the pH from increasing? At the start: $$\ce{CH3COOH + NaOH -> CH3COONa + H2O}$$ Which means there will be a high amount of salt in the solution, ...
4k views

### Buffer formation in weak acid/strong base titration?

I'm a little confused about what happens when you titrate a weak acid or base. For example, let's say that you are trying to titrate a weak acid. Based on this question, it seems like the weak acid ...
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### Why is phenolphthalein an appropriate indicator for titration of a strong acid with a strong base?

How does the pH at the equivalence point, as well as the pH range over which the colour of phenolphthalein changes, make it a suitable indicator for titrations between strong acids and strong bases?
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### Should the tip of the burette of an automatic titrator be immersed in the analyte?

In all the tutorials I found online, the tip of the burette (containing the titrant - NaOH) was immersed into the analyte solution. My question is: shouldn't the tip be out of the solution? Isn't ...
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### How to calculate the dissociation constant of a weak acid from the titration with a strong base?

Problem: A solution of an unknown weak acid of unknown concentration was titrated with a solution of a strong base of unknown concentration. During the titration, the pH after adding $\pu{2.00 mL}$ ...
8k views

### Deriving the equation for oxygen estimation by Winkler’s method

We were doing $\ce{O2}$ estimation by Winkler's method The procedure and reactions involved in this experiment are: Carefully fill a 300-mL glass stoppered bottle brim-full with sample water. ...
I have a base $\ce{M(OH)_{3}}$ having 3 $\mathrm{p}K_{\mathrm{b}}$ values as, $$\mathrm{p}K_{\mathrm{b}_{1}} = 0.5\\ \mathrm{p}K_{\mathrm{b}_{2}} = 3.7\\ \mathrm{p}K_{\mathrm{b}_{3}} = 7.7\\$$ If a ...