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Questions tagged [terminology]

For questions relating to terminology and naming conventions in chemistry.

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What exactly is an "electron-sponge"?

What exactly an "electron-sponge" [behavior/action/property/system] nickname is, and what makes a material an "electron-sponge" (preferably, quantitatively)? From what I found, it's typically a ...
andselisk's user avatar
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What is the adverb for a "hydrogen bond"?

I am looking for some opinions concerning the terminology around hydrogen bonds. Other types of bonds can be expressed as an adjective: "The atoms are bonded covalently." or (though less common) "(...)...
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Is there a particular name for a Hill formula or sum formula omitting hydrogen?

Often, single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis determines the non-H atoms first, and eventually puts hydrogen atoms "as riding" on idealized positions in respect to heavier atoms (e.g., C, O, N), ...
Buttonwood's user avatar
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Difference of aggregate and cluster?

Can anyone tell me the difference of aggregates and clusters from the molecular point of view? Thank you so much.
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When is coal considered to be oxidized?

What amount of oxidization is required to refer to some coal as oxidized coal, and how long does it take for coal to become oxidized in temperatures of roughly 25-40°C? I have found a research ...
Display Name's user avatar
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What does "acidic" mean in an article on hydrogen boride nanosheets?

From Rojas et al. [1] (emphasis mine): On the other hand, we found that proton exchange with HB occurs in water with the estimated $\mathrm{p}K_\mathrm{a}$ of $3.5\pm 0.2,$ even after reactive sites ...
hoggywoggy's user avatar
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What is the definition of energy-independent basis?

I am reading this article by Zatsarinny and Fischer [1]. At some point they span a wave function $\Psi_{E}$ in terms of energy independent basis $$\Psi_{E}=\sum_{k} A_{E k} \Psi_{k}$$ For example, The ...
amilton moreira's user avatar
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What, if any, are the differences between radical scavenging and radical quenching?

Hindered amine light stabilizers (HALS), introduced in the 1970s, function mainly as free radical scavengers, although they also may act as quenchers or peroxide decomposers. (Polypropylene: The ...
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Standard abbreviations for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, similar to those for nucleic and amino acids?

The Nature paper Characterizing particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emissions from diesel vehicles using a portable emissions measurement system addresses polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (p-...
uhoh's user avatar
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Collective term for acid/base; hydronium/hydroxide

When writing about acids and bases it would seem very natural for me to abstract the set of both acids and bases and have a single noun for them, instead of cumbersomly listing them both each time. ...
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Terminology for "proton stripping"?

This is going to probably be an easy question for an organic chemist, but I am looking for the proper terminology to describe the following reaction mechanism. In particular, what is a more precise ...
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Can denticity and hapticity be defined simulaneously for a ligand?

I am freshly studying coordination chemistry. What I understand from denticity and hapticity is: Denticity - no. of electron donating sites in a ligand. Hapticity - no. of electron donating atoms in a ...
FirstAxiom's user avatar
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What does it mean to "shear" an emulsion?

The following instructions are given for a preparation and I am wondering what it means to "shear an emulsion"? The water phase components and the oil phase components are each mixed in ...
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Jacobi coordinates - definition

I became quite confused about Jacobi coordinates. Until now I've been used to them as the coordinate system, where coordinates are vectors pointing to the center of mass of previous "subsystem", as we ...
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What does unactivated, activated and deactivated aryl chloride mean in cross-coupling reaction?

Hartwig et al. [1] used unactivated aryl chloride for Buchwald–Hartwig amination. What does unactivated, activated and deactivated aryl chloride mean in a cross-coupling reaction? Reference Hartwig, ...
Cherry's user avatar
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How to tell 'orthokinetic' apart from 'perikinetic' based on their prefixes?

During a test in colloid and surface chemistry, students were asked to distinguish between two terms: orthokinetic and perikinetic coagulation. The rate of aggregation is in general determined by ...
Linear Christmas's user avatar
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Which term for heat energy in calorimetry is correct in scientific usage?

In calorimetry several terms are interchangeable: Lower Calorific Value Lower Heating Value Net Calorific Value Net Heating Value The following terms also appear to have identical meanings: Higher ...
Agriculturist's user avatar
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Definition of "Diabatic" vs "Diathermic"

In Atkins' Elements of Physical Chemistry (Sixth Edition) it is written that: walls that permit heating as a mode of transfer of energy are called diathermic and that the converse situation is ...
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What is the difference between reactant and reagent?

What is the difference between reactants and reagents? I've seen both used for very similar situations... The dictionary said that reagents are added to a reaction to identify another substance, but ...
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Does "parts" mean molar or mass?

Researching old (like century-old) papers it is common for chemists to describe preparations in terms of parts – e.g., "1 part water, 2 parts sulfuric acid." Is there a reliable convention on ...
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What is the name of the physical quantity that is given in kJ/g?

The chemical potential $\mu$ of a pure phase corresponds to the Gibbs free energy $G$ divided by the amount of substance $n$: $${G\over n} = \mu,$$ so the units of $\mu$ are $\pu{kJ mol^-1}.$ What do ...
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What is "protein redox conformation"?

From an article by Frye et al. [1]: Reduced glutathione (GSH) is the major intracellular redox buffer and is essential in free radical scavenging, redox homeostasis, maintenance of protein redox ...
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Why there is a need of independent definitions for both mass and mole?

Considering that the two quantities are linked by reality, how can be both imposed by independent definitions? I am aware that the change taking place next May does not effect common weighing in ...
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How do you call the opposite of an ion?

According to IUPAC, an ion is defined as: An atomic or molecular particle having a net electric charge. (source) But how do you call an atomic or molecular particle that does not have a net ...
Feli Goldstein's user avatar
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Name for reaction producing carbon from CO2

Some years ago I heard of a reaction where hydrogen could be used to reduce $\ce{CO2}$ to carbon and water, similar to the Sabatier reaction. I believe it also used iron as a catalyst at high ...
FleetFoot's user avatar
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Enantiomers in anisotropic achiral chemical environments

Consider a functionalised molecular box or cage which has an electrostatic gradient due to positively charged groups one one of its faces. This environment is achiral as there are reflection ...
Secret's user avatar
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Difference between "isoaspartyl" and "isoaspartate" in antibody deamidation

I'm translating a text where antibody deamidation is mentioned. One sentence goes like this: We used reversed-phase HPLC to analyze the aspartyl forms of the monoclonal antibody. (Russian original ...
CowperKettle's user avatar
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Does ethanol "decompose" or "remove" phosgene from chloroform?

A question I was asked was: "Why is ethanol added to chloroform bottles?". I know that chloroform can be slowly converted to poisonous phosgene gas, and that ethanol is added to prevent phosgene ...
Who's user avatar
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1 answer
647 views

What exactly does a "system" include in chemistry?

If we have reactants $\ce A$ and $\ce B$ and the reaction(s) between them haven't started yet, are those reactants our "system"? After the reaction takes place, are products then also included in the ...
Sam19KY's user avatar
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Is there an equivalent term for favourable and non-favourable entropy?

For Gibbs energy, we have 'exergonic' or 'endergonic' For Enthalpy, we have 'exothermic' or 'endothermic' It seems logical there should be an equivalent pair of terms for entropy, but I can't seem to ...
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What is reversible change for ideal gas?

What are the reversible and irreversible changes for an ideal gas? Is it the change that keeps the ideal gas law during the change? Is any reversible change a sum of changes satisfying the ideal gas ...
Jihyun's user avatar
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What does “efficiency” refer to for a refrigerator?

A problem from my textbook mentions a refrigerator working with $35\,\%$ efficiency. I thought that in this case the coefficient of performance (COP) was used, specifically $Q_\mathrm{cold}/W,$ which ...
jack gatz's user avatar
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What is the term for a collection of chiral molecules of unequal amounts of left- and right-handed enantiomers?

This is what I found on wiki: In chemistry, a racemic mixture, is one that has equal amounts of left- and right-handed enantiomers of a chiral molecule. Homochirality can also refer to enantiopure ...
user2165's user avatar
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What is the proper use of the term "pi-donor ligand"?

Robert Crabtree's The Organometallic Chemistry of the Transition Metals (7e) describes a pi-donor ligand as being a pi-donor "as a result of the lone pairs that are left after one lone pair has ...
Eli Jones's user avatar
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What does environmental factor include?

Does E-factor include all of the reagents including catalysts, solvents, and reactants that go into making the product? Further, in the E-factor calculation should all the solvents used in work-up (...
Catherine Patrick's user avatar
1 vote
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552 views

Difference between base-promoted and base-catalysed

Why is halogenation of ketones in base described as being "base-promoted" and not "base-catalysed"? If the reaction is not "catalyzed" then how is the base used up?
Aditya Prakash's user avatar
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Determining pH of immunoprecipitation buffer recipe

I'm following a protocol for extraction of proteins from yeast, and I came across this recipe for immunoprecipitation buffer: $\pu{50 mM}$ HEPES-$\ce{KOH}$, pH 6.8, $\pu{150 mM}$ $\ce{KOAc}$, $\pu{...
Arcadium's user avatar
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What is a "tube lens" in a mass-spectrometer ion source and what does it do?

I came across the Russian phrase "Transporting capillary voltage: 85 V" in a text I was translating. The paragraph was describing the operating parameters of an electrospray ionization-based ion ...
CowperKettle's user avatar
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Word for substance being diluted

The liquid we use to dilute is the diluent, what is the substance that is being diluted called? I considered "dilutant" but it seems ambiguous. I can't seem to find a common term in literature either. ...
jiggunjer's user avatar
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Intensive properties clarification - Chemical thermodynamics

I just started learning chemical thermodynamics and have come upon the definitions for extensive and intensive properties. I had a great deal of confusion over the exact meaning of intensive ...
Ram Sidharth Nair's user avatar
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55 views

Micelles absorb fat, is there an adjective for this?

"Hygroscopic" means the capacity to absorb water. Is there an adjective to describe the same idea except for the absorption of lipids? Like, when you wash your hands with soap and the soap micelles ...
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627 views

Difference between inorganic and organic semiconductors: electronic structure or configuration, or?

Organic semiconductors differ from inorganic semiconductors. In organic semiconductors the molecules are held together by weak van der Waals interactions and in inorganic semiconductors by covalent ...
user2758804's user avatar
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How is relative interaction energy defined and quantified?

I understand the interaction energy is the energy associated or caused by the interaction between the objects. So, for atoms it has to be the sum of van der Waals interaction and Coulomb interaction. ...
Roshan Shrestha's user avatar
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Name of proton directly bonded to a functional group e.g. carbonyl

For example, a carbon bonded to a carbonyl group is the alpha carbon, and has alpha protons. Following that there are beta and gamma carbons and protons. Is there a specific name for the proton in an ...
triffid's user avatar
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Difference between calcination, roasting and pyrolysis

Hie everyone. I have been going through pyrometallurgical processes for recycling lithium-ion batteries and l have been coming across these terms; calcination, pyrolysis and roasting which l need ...
bryanmaks's user avatar
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Definition of a Homologous Series

My textbook states that members of a homologous series have the same general formula (ex. $\ce{C_{n}H_{2n}}$ for alkenes) as they only differ from one to another by additional $\ce{CH_2}$ (methylene) ...
David Lu's user avatar
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446 views

What is the significance of the downward arrows in energy level diagrams in organic chemistry?

The following text is from Solomons, Fryhle and Snyder Organic Chemistry Third Edition, chapter 1 "The Basics: Bonding and Molecular Structure", page 13, topic 1.5 "Resonance Theory&...
Vishnu's user avatar
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280 views

Photodegradation vs photooxidation

I have been writing a paper about polymers being "aged" by light. Most of this aging happens because light hits atmospheric oxygen and either excites it to its singlet state or causes atmospheric ...
iammax's user avatar
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Benzene ring position labeling (ortho vs para)

Why is the ortho position on a benzene ring next to the primary carbon and not in the opposite position, as ortho means "straight", not "next to" as in para?
radrick's user avatar
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Word for a specific enzymatic process?

Foreword: I am developing a variable-processing program for my Computer Science research project. One particular part of the program mimics the behavior of biological enzymes, except instead of ...
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