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Questions tagged [terminology]

For questions relating to terminology and naming conventions in chemistry.

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2 votes
2 answers
115 views

How to identify an organic base?

According to the answer key, trimethylamine (iii) and ethanolamine (iv) are considered organic bases, whereas ammonium (i) and acrylamide (ii) are not: From my understanding, an organic base has an ...
6 votes
2 answers
149 views

What does ‘D’ in GADP (glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate) stand for?

Wikipedia says glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate can be abbreviated as G3P, GA3P, GADP, GAP, TP, GALP or PGAL, and many resources seem to use GADP as its abbreviation. I have no idea where ‘D’ came from. ...
19 votes
2 answers
30k views

Is there a difference between equilibrium and steady state?

The term equilibrium is used in the context of reversible reactions that reach a point where concentrations no longer change. The term steady-state is used in enzyme kinetics when the concentration of ...
-1 votes
1 answer
67 views

Is the acceleration of the low-temperature allotropic conversion of β-form white tin by the presence of α-form grey tin really considered catalysis?

discussion of the allotropes of sulfur in Melting point of sulfur and comments below reminded me of Napoleon's buttons, cf. Tin pest; Allotropic transformation. That section in its entirety reads: At ...
2 votes
4 answers
2k views

Difference between voltaic cell in chemistry and battery in physics

In chemistry's voltaic cell, the anode (negative electrode) of the battery supplies electrons to the cathode (positive electrode) of the battery. In physics, the electrons flow from negative terminal (...
11 votes
1 answer
317 views

Why are IUPAC's definitions of exo- and endothermic disconnected from the direction of heat flow?

I'm wondering if anyone can provide a rationale for IUPAC's definitions of exothermic and endothermic since they disconnect these terms from the direction of heat flow. Specifically, here are IUPAC's ...
14 votes
1 answer
2k views

Is there a name for this algorithm to calculate the concentration of a mixture of two solutions containing the same solute?

There is an algorithm called "Mischungskreuz" (German for "x of mixing") that is sometimes taught as a shortcut to figure out the following problem: You have two solutions that ...
3 votes
2 answers
186 views

Does "concentration gradient" refer to the amount of all solutes, or a specific solute moving across a membrane?

I'm struggling with something that seems really simple, and I think it's because I'm stuck on the definition of concentration gradients. If you have a solution with a moderate concentration of ...
30 votes
3 answers
10k views

Is activated carbon classified as organic or inorganic?

Organic compounds are typically defined as “molecules containing carbon”. Wikipedia states that there for some historical (read: non-logical) reasons, a few types of carbon-containing compounds ...
0 votes
2 answers
6k views

What is the difference between reacting and dissolving?

When one chemical is added to another how would we come to know whether the compound dissolves in it or reacts with it? For example $\ce{AgNO3}$ dissolves in $\ce{CCl4}$ whereas it could also have ...
7 votes
1 answer
761 views

What is laboratory air?

Oftentimes in the literature, particularly for oxidation studies, the authors mention that experiments were performed in "laboratory air." Is there any distinction from laboratory air from ...
4 votes
1 answer
1k views

Can a spontaneous reaction have zero or negative activation energy?

Is it possible for a certain spontaneous reaction to have zero or negative activation energy? My high school teacher explains that it shouldn't be possible since it breaks the Arrhenius equation, ...
1 vote
2 answers
213 views

Name for HxOy compounds?

Is there a name for the class of stand alone molecules that contains oxygen, water, hydrogen peroxide, and ozone? ($\ce{O2}$, $\ce{H2O}$, $\ce{H2O2}$, $\ce{O3}$) I would not want to include hydroxyls $...
3 votes
1 answer
102 views

Does CsBr have BCC lattice or cubic?

Everywhere I see on the internet, it says BCC, but my professor still says "it is cubic lattice, no matter which book/website might tell you otherwise". The argument was that for deciding ...
1 vote
1 answer
2k views

Why is active sec-pentyl group called so?

My teacher as well as Wikipedia — Pentyl group use the following names for the “pentyl” groups: Group name Structure with attachment point 1 active sec-pentyl 2 sec-pentyl 3 active pentyl If a ...
5 votes
2 answers
2k views

Why are "vinylic" and "allylic" carbons named so?

I find it hard to remember which is "vinylic" and "allylic" carbon, so I feel it would be easier to remember if I know the reason why they are named so, like their word root ...
2 votes
4 answers
13k views

What is the difference between cofactors and coenzymes?

I've just been wondering what are the differences between the two and I can't seem to find a formal delineation.
0 votes
1 answer
102 views

Can species with diffrent number of electrons be isoelectronic?

According to IUPAC gold book- Does this meam that 2 species with diffrent electron number, but same valence electrons, be considered isoelectronic Say a molecule XY and ZY where X and Z belong to the ...
4 votes
1 answer
274 views

Principal quantum number and 'good' quantum numbers

When we discuss about configurations we specify n, l, m quantum numbers for the individual electrons. My question is: why when we pass from configurations to atomic terms in order to use the total ...
6 votes
1 answer
2k views

What is the difference between technical-grade and food-grade tripotassium phosphate?

There is an article about tripotassium phosphate that states the following: Consumers may have health concerns about why this cleaning agent can be used in food, but that is the technical grade, not ...
1 vote
1 answer
20k views

What is defined by part by weight in the definition of equivalent weight?

According to my book, equivalent weight is defined as the ‘number of parts by weight’ of an element that interacts with 1.008 parts by weight of hydrogen. It is dimensionless while gram equivalent ...
4 votes
1 answer
259 views

How to pronounce Aʹα-helix?

The LOV protein structure contains a Jα- and an Aʹα-helix. Would “A prime alpha helix” be the correct pronunciation for Aʹα-helix? I'm speaking soon in front of the scientists in the field that I ...
21 votes
7 answers
34k views

What is the difference between an element and an atom?

First, I would like to quote sentences from a book introducing elements and atoms: An element is a fundamental (pure) form of matter that cannot be broken down to a simpler form. Elements are made up ...
10 votes
1 answer
3k views

What is the unit of Z effective?

Z effective is the net positive charge experienced by an electron. But what is the unit of this net charge: coulomb (C) or microcoulomb (μC), or something else?
3 votes
1 answer
284 views

Is "density per unit volume" something?

I was reading articles on the preparation of shellac-based composites when I encountered the following statement (in ref. 1): Wood flour and fibres are interesting because of their low cost, good ...
3 votes
0 answers
309 views

What does unactivated, activated and deactivated aryl chloride mean in cross-coupling reaction?

Hartwig et al. [1] used unactivated aryl chloride for Buchwald–Hartwig amination. What does unactivated, activated and deactivated aryl chloride mean in a cross-coupling reaction? Reference Hartwig, ...
21 votes
6 answers
239k views

What is the definition of of 'compound', 'mixture', 'element' and 'molecule'?

I am looking for the precise definitions, as I am very confused as to what they are exactly because although I mostly understand what they mean, I have encountered some conflicting definitions that ...
7 votes
2 answers
94 views

What is thermal plasma in-flight oxidation technique?

From Vijay, M.; Ramachandran, K.; Ananthapadmanabhan, P. V.; Nalini, B.; Pillai, B. C.; Bondioli, F.; Manivannan, A.; Narendhirakannan, R. T. Current Applied Physics 2013, 13 (3), 510–516. DOI 10.1016/...
2 votes
3 answers
450 views

What is alkalimetry?

I've found two answers. One says its the determination of concentration of unknown alkali solution with the help of standard acid solution. The other says it as the determination of concentration of ...
2 votes
1 answer
12k views

Are decomposition and dissociation reactions the same?

I have seen these terms being used almost interchangebly, but are decomposition and dissociation reactions the same ?
5 votes
1 answer
190 views

What is the meaning of "proto" in nomenclature?

"Proto" is generally used to describe "first", "foremost" or "earliest form of (something)" indicating something primitive that transforms into something known ...
2 votes
2 answers
143 views

Does the word "restraint" have any special meaning in the case of protein or biochemistry?

The following screenshot is taken from the book The Encyclopedia of Physical Science & Technology, volume: Biochemistry, Edition: 3rd, Page-197. The text says: FIGURE 3 Schematic representation ...
-2 votes
2 answers
113 views

Is the hydrolysis of a salt produced by neutralisation a secondary reaction? [closed]

I understand that in a solution, the salt created by a neutralisation reaction can react again with water molecules, which can further affect the pH. Is it correct to say that the hydrolysis of salts ...
8 votes
2 answers
354 views

What's the relation between two symmetry groups, if one has all the symmetry of the other and some more?

Question: Consider two molecular symmetry groups, for example $C_s$ and $C_{2v}$. $C_s$ has one inversion plane, and two irreductible representations: the symmetric $A'$, and the antisymmetric $A''$. ...
5 votes
2 answers
391 views

Looking for terminology for when a hygroscopic chemical gets moisture in it

Scenario: A jar of zinc chloride (which is very hygroscopic) is left on a shelf in a chemistry classroom for several years. You open it and it is hard. What is the word to describe that? It was ...
7 votes
1 answer
341 views

What does the 'S' stand for in base-centered cubic crystals and Bravais lattices?

The 'I' used for body-centered systems is for the German word Innenzentriert and the 'F' for face-centered is for Flächenzentriert, also German but what about the 'S' for a, b, or c base-centered ...
3 votes
1 answer
107 views

What does it mean when a molecule is described as "optically stable"?

In this question about "Why don't trigonal S and P compounds undergo inversion at room temperature?", phosphines, sulfoniums and sulfoxides are described as "optically stable", ...
4 votes
2 answers
280 views

What is "detwinning" as a 2D crystallography technique?

The Phys.org article Iron selenide revealed as 'garden-variety iron-based superconductor' is quoted below. Normally I would hesitate to quote so much but in this case it all seems germane. Question: ...
1 vote
0 answers
52 views

Is there an equivalent term for favourable and non-favourable entropy?

For Gibbs energy, we have 'exergonic' or 'endergonic' For Enthalpy, we have 'exothermic' or 'endothermic' It seems logical there should be an equivalent pair of terms for entropy, but I can't seem to ...
1 vote
1 answer
82 views

Phrasing for processes that "create" Entropy?

In many circumstances, in the real world, systems aren't "closed" in any meaningful sense. So, when I burn a log in a fireplace, I can use words to artificially set up a kind of "log ...
6 votes
1 answer
441 views

Do hydration (as in "solvation") and "hydration" of salts refer to the same phenomenon?

I've come across two use cases of the word "hydration", presented to me as distinct topics: Solvation is the process of reorganizing solvent and solute molecules into solvation complexes ...
3 votes
2 answers
186 views

Is there a good synonym for "a group connected to a N-atom"?

I'm writing a publication in which I compare the effect of alkyl, alkene and similar chains of different length connected to a N-atom of a heterocyclic organic compound. Often I have to refer to these ...
2 votes
1 answer
131 views

Degree of polymerization with structure-based polymer naming

Polymers may be named using either a structure-based or a source-based nomenclature, as detailed in the IUPAC Purple Book.[1] Therefore, the polymer descibed by $\require{enclose}\ce{\enclose{...
10 votes
4 answers
10k views

What is difference between intramolecular redox and disproportionation redox

I can not understand difference between the intramolecular redox reaction and the Disproportionation redox reaction. Both involve the same molecule as substrate, but what is difference?
9 votes
1 answer
423 views

IUPAC naming of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) heterocyclic core and its locants

Wikipedia article about LSD says its IUPAC name is (6aR,9R)-N,N-diethyl-7-methyl-4,6,6a,7,8,9-hexahydroindolo[4,3-fg]quinoline-9-carboxamide which is quite complex. Especially its didehydroergoline ...
3 votes
1 answer
113 views

Standard suffixes for compounds?

Long ago, I learned that suffixes like -ide, -ate, -ose, etc. had specific meanings. Now, I'm seeing all these drug ads on TV with generic names that all end in -ab or -ib.  Do these have a standard ...
5 votes
1 answer
5k views

Why does almost every drug that causes dependence have this "-ine" suffix?

I noticed that many drugs that cause dependence have the suffix word "-ine". For example: Caffeine, nicotine, benzodiazepine, methamphetamine, cocaine, and morphine. My questions: Why do ...
2 votes
1 answer
155 views

Why is guanine sometimes referred to as "Acyclovir Impurity B"?

"Acyclovir Impurity B" is the name for guanine used by a handful of relatively low-traffic websites. Googling the term shows this. It is nearly always with a capital letter at the beginning ...
4 votes
0 answers
64 views

What does "acidic" mean in an article on hydrogen boride nanosheets?

From Rojas et al. [1] (emphasis mine): On the other hand, we found that proton exchange with HB occurs in water with the estimated $\mathrm{p}K_\mathrm{a}$ of $3.5\pm 0.2,$ even after reactive sites ...
12 votes
3 answers
36k views

Difference between lab-grade and food-grade purity?

What is the difference in purity betwen lab-grade and food-grade when talking about potentially consumable compounds? As an example let's take ascorbic acid powder: if it's marked as lab-grade, does ...

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