Questions tagged [synthesis]

Synthesis is a purposeful execution of chemical reactions to obtain the desired product. Applies to long and complex natural product syntheses as much as to short one or two-step syntheses. This also covers synthetic problem sets and retrosynthetic analyses.

146 questions with no upvoted or accepted answers
Filter by
Sorted by
Tagged with
2
votes
0answers
574 views

Why do we use the Schotten-Baumann synthesis method for the synthesis of amides?

Recently, I learnt about the Schotten-Baumann synthesis method. I know that this synthesis method was invented to overcome the problem of neutralising the acidic by-products of the amide synthesis ...
2
votes
0answers
507 views

Deprotection (debenzoylation) of glucose (sacharide) using NaOMe leads to hydrolysis glucose

I have a problem removing the benzoyl groups of my glucose moiety using sodium methylate (standard procedure). Indeed, the benzoyl groups are removed. However, a significant amount of glucose gets ...
2
votes
0answers
915 views

How do you remove residual Lawesson's reagent after thionation?

I am currently synthesizing a peptidomimetic bioisostere that replaces an oxygen with a sulfur. I use lawesson's reagent to achieve this, and althought the reaction works and despite running it ...
2
votes
0answers
135 views

How can copper(II) nitrate hexahydrate be synthesized in the laboratory as well as industrially?

I am researching the hexahydrate and found the same synthesis method being presented for both the anhydrous form and the trihydrate form. Chemistry of the Elements Second Edition, N. N. Greenwood ...
2
votes
0answers
464 views

What's the evidence that it is the nitronium cation (NO2+) acting as the attacking electrophile in mixed acid nitration of aromatic compounds (SeAr)

As per the title, I'm looking as to what is the evidence is that it is the $\ce{NO2+}$ cation acting as the attacking electrophile in an electrophillic aromatic substitution reaction involving the '...
2
votes
0answers
65 views

Could UV lasers be used to split CO2 and H2O?

I was wondering whether intense UV light, tuned to the correct wavelength, could be used to split carbon dioxide and water molecules as a first step towards synthesizing liquid fuels.
2
votes
0answers
384 views

When do I use a Grignard reagent such as PhMgBr, instead of an organolithium such as PhLi to react with butanone

Essentially what I am asking is, how do I know whether I should use a Grignard in the place of an organolithium compound or vice versa when reacting it with aldehydes and ketones, or does it not ...
2
votes
0answers
198 views

Alternative to mercury bubbler for increasing boiling temp?

A common reaction for forming the octachlorodirhenate(III) anion is to heat tert-n-butylammonium perrhenate in benzoyl chloride at 209 ºC. If you look up the info for benzoyl chloride, one sees that ...
2
votes
0answers
496 views

Zinin Reduction of 1,3-dinitrobenzene

Remember asking my chemistry teacher this question in 1979/80: in the reduction of 1,3-dinitrobenzene with hydrogen sulphide/ aqueous ammonia, why is only one nitro group reduced?. He said that the ...
2
votes
0answers
81 views

Synthesis of a tungsten carbene bromide from [CpW(CO)3]-

I'm currently working through past test and exam papers in order to prepare for my organometallic test at the end of the month, but unfortunately I've gotten stuck on the following question. Since I ...
2
votes
0answers
46 views

Can we create human muscles artificially?

Can chemical processes create sarcomeres? Not the entire cell with mitochondria, just what basically makes the muscle contract, myosin and actin, in the goal of reproducing our muscles. The source of ...
2
votes
0answers
1k views

Mechanism for synthesis of 4-nitrophenylhydrazine from the diazonium salt of 4-nitroaniline

I am trying to figure out the mechanism to create 4-nitrophenylhydrazine from the diazonium salt of 4-nitroaniline. I've found a couple of explanations for what reactants are used, but I don't ...
2
votes
0answers
76 views

Shelf Life of Methylcyclopentadiene

We are making organometallics in the lab, but instead of just regular Cyclopentadiene dimer, we crack methylcyclopentadiene dimer to make methylcyclopentadiene. I cannot find the shelf life of ...
2
votes
0answers
90 views

How to perform oxidation of keto group in presence of hydroxyl group?

How to perform oxidation of keto group in presence of hydroxyl group. I fear there may be halogenation at $\ce{OH}$ group. Is there a way to protect the $\ce{OH}$ group ?
2
votes
0answers
106 views

What are the possible side reactions when preparing iron(III) naphthenate?

I am trying to prepare some iron(III) naphthenate. And the raw materials are : ferric(III) chloride, and naphthenate acid, NaOH, toluene, deionized water Everything worked well in lab scale: final ...
2
votes
0answers
2k views

How, chemically, would you remove protruding phenyl groups?

How, chemically, would you remove protruding phenyl groups? I mean for instance in the molecule phenethylamine there's a phenyl group sticking out (or protruding) how would you go about removing this ...
2
votes
1answer
249 views

Ester as a side product in the synthesis of bromoalkane from alcohol. Is it correct?

About 5 months ago, I answered a very interesting question albeit a very simple one. Why do we need sulfuric acid in creating alkyl bromide and not in creating alkyl iodide from alcohol and ...
1
vote
0answers
269 views

How can I convert 3-bromocyclohexene to cyclohexane?

My attempt: or Which one of the methods seems viable?
1
vote
0answers
33 views

Can you develop algorithms to predict synthesis of peptides?

This may be a very foolish question, but do (complex) algorithms exist to predict the steps and materials involved (or therefore different options and paths) in synthesis for the given input of for ...
1
vote
0answers
22 views

Alkylation of enolates using tertiary halide

I was recently studying the alpha alkylation of enolates using LDA followed by subsequent treatment with primary halides to give the product.I was wondering what happens with teritary halides. My ...
1
vote
0answers
50 views

Chemically producing sodium metal from magnesium

Anyone with experience making sodium metal ($\ce{Na}$) with the following process? Reactants: $\pu{14 g}$ magnesium powder, $\pu{20 g}$ sodium hydroxide; Catalysts: $1$ to $\pu{2 g}$ menthol crystals; ...
1
vote
0answers
24 views

Is it possible to add R chain that contains a carbonyl (ketone) to the alpha carbon?

I'm trying to synthesize 2‐(3‐oxobutyl)cyclohexan‐1‐one from cyclohexanone: I thought about LDA, then adding an R group that has a ketone. Is that possible? As far as I know, we can add halogen or ...
1
vote
0answers
34 views

How is lapping slurry made?

I've recently gained an interest in the whole topic of lapping and the creation of flat surfaces. Lapping is done in different ways, but the one I'm interested in is essentially just rubbing 2 ...
1
vote
0answers
96 views

Does DIBAL-H reduce alcohol?

Does DIBAL-H reduce alcohol? I was reading an article by Rentsch and Kalesse [1] and I came across this reaction, but could not figure out how the final compound is formed: Reference Rentsch, A.; ...
1
vote
1answer
126 views

Make Acetic Acid from wood

I would like to know if it would be possible to make Acetic Acid from Wood. I know that you can charcoal wood to get the gases, cool it, and get the liquid. This would yield a bunch of chemicals in a ...
1
vote
0answers
50 views

How concentrated does sulfuric acid need to be for nitric acid synthesis (H2SO4 + nitrate salt distillation)?

So I have a home lab setup and recently found myself in need of some nitric acid. I could just buy some, but I thought it would be a useful exercise to make my own. I have plenty of nitrate salts ...
1
vote
0answers
97 views

What is “activated red phosphorus”? What made it so long to be discovered?

[WP = white phosphorus ; RP = red phosphorus ; ARP = activated red phosphorus] Tom from Extraction & Ire did a video two years ago(2018) on converting WP to RP by keeping the former in sunlight ...
1
vote
0answers
24 views

Nickel(II) acetylacetonate crystals coming out blue

An experiment in my class has us synthesising the acetylacetonate complex from hydrated nickel chloride being added to a solution of ammonia, acetylacetone and water. The products came out pale blue, ...
1
vote
0answers
39 views

Definition of throughput

I wonder what's the exact meaning of throughput in chemistry synthesis, eg. in organic synthesis or production of pharmaceutical products. For instance, what are their units? How are they measured? I'...
1
vote
0answers
48 views

Conversion of Erythrosine to Fluorescein

I am a home-chemist and I love dyes. I recently got my hands on sodium salt of erythrosine (tetra-iodinated fluorescein). I want to convert erythrosine to fluorescein. I speculate that using dilute ...
1
vote
0answers
39 views

Synthesis of Schiff Bases in Aqueous Media

The paper https://www.hindawi.com/journals/jchem/2013/909217/ describes a possibility to synthesize salicylaldehyde-based Schiff Bases using water as a solvent. Yields shown for the microwave-assisted ...
1
vote
0answers
39 views

L-lysine acetate synthesis

Is it possible to synthesize L-lysine acetate in the following steps? First, mix L-lysine HCl with an excess of NaOH and just enough water so that the total water in the product is enough to solve all ...
1
vote
0answers
47 views

Reaction with ethyl chloroacetate and potassium carbonate

I am carrying out a reaction using ethyl chloroacetate, potassium carbonate in acetone for a compound containing $\ce{-NH}$ group. So, the substitution will be at $\ce{-NH}$ position. I have tried ...
1
vote
0answers
50 views

How to get rid needle clogging on electrospinning of PLA/PCL/PMMA/Collagen?

For my thesis research, I dissolved PLA and PCL in chloroform: methanol (3:1), PMMA (350.000 MW, 13 wt%) in acetone, and collagen in acetate acid--and then, I mixed them together. The problem is when ...
1
vote
0answers
45 views

Selective Esterification of Amino Acid

I am going to prepare tert-butyl protected threonine. I was going for the classic esterification methodology which is acid catalyzed (sulfuric acid) esterification under reflux of tert butyl alcohol + ...
1
vote
0answers
46 views

Organometallic Synthesis: Cp2Ti(I)Me from TiCl4

I've been working on this synthesis question for a couple days but I'm a little stuck. The question is: Using only $\ce{TiCl_{4}}$, $\ce{NaCp}$, $\ce{PhLi}$, $\ce{MeI}$, and $\ce{EtMgBr}$, ...
1
vote
0answers
117 views

Why is t-BuOK necessary for this synthesis?

1-chloro-2-methylpropane --> 2-chloro-2-methylpropane. My understanding is that an E2 reaction produces two types of alkenes, the major product for non-sterically hindered bases is the more ...
1
vote
0answers
148 views

How to dissolve PLA/PCL/PMMA?

I have a research about electrospun membrane synthesis where I dissolve PLA pellets in chloroform:methanol (3:1) for 3 hours and also PCL pellets in chloroform:methanol (3:1) for 3 hours too. Another ...
1
vote
0answers
110 views

Why is phosphoric acid preferentially used for dehydrating alcohols during synthesis of alkenes?

I have also seen concentrated sulphuric acid being used, but what makes phosphoric acid preferable to sulfuric acid?
1
vote
0answers
114 views

Production of L-glucose

What chain(s) of reactions are used to produce L-glucose? I did a search on Google scholar but to my surprise nothing came up. My guess would be that the synthesis starts from D-glucose for which ...
1
vote
0answers
37 views

Changing the CO2 concentration (adding or subtracting) inside a sealed vessel?

I am looking for a method of modifying the CO2 concentration inside a sealed container that is both precise and repeatable (C02 needs adjustment every time the container is sealed, also need to be ...
1
vote
0answers
38 views

Polymer synthesis with redox initiation

I made four different samples of poly acrylic nitrile (PAN) by going through a precipitation polymerization. The system was initiiated by the redox system $\ce{K2S2O8}$, $\ce{FeSO4}$ and $\ce{Na2S2O5}$...
1
vote
0answers
124 views

Synthesis of para-chloroanisole using diazotisation followed by chlorination with aluminium chloride

Is this a legitimate reaction scheme to synthesise para-chloroanisole from benzene and methanol as the only organic reactants? $$\ce{C6H6 -> HNO3/H2SO4 -> H2/Pd -> HONO/{Ethanol}\\ -> {...
1
vote
0answers
302 views

How is density “predicted”?

Hassium is predicted to be the densest element at 41 g/cm ^3, but how do you predict something like that? Wikipedia says there have only been 100 hassium atoms made to date and it's half life is less ...
1
vote
0answers
2k views

Synthesis of imine

This synthesis problem is giving me a lot of trouble. The main problem is that the four steps I have down I think are the only ones I need but there is another blank. Anyone have any thoughts?
1
vote
0answers
19 views

How can I best achieve a stable solution of Pt-Nanowires in water

I am synthesizing platinum nanowires ($50nm×20\mu m$) in aqueous solution. Unfortunately they start to aggregate rapidly, which is not desired. How can I keep them dispersed?
1
vote
0answers
31 views

The distinction between graphene supercapacitors and reduced graphite oxide supercapacitors

Looking at this study, Direct laser writing of micro-supercapacitors on hydrated graphite oxide films, a consumer laser cutter is used to synthesize reduced graphite oxide supercapacitors from ...
1
vote
0answers
383 views

Making benzoyl chloride - yellow liquid and a precipitate?

I am attempting to produce benzoyl chloride from benzoic acid (I need to convert an isotopically labeled version, so I can't just buy the acyl chloride). I am reacting benzoic acid with excess oxalyl ...
1
vote
0answers
457 views

Best Method To Make Large Graphene Oxide Sheets?

There are so many methods to make graphene oxide now, I'm not exactly experienced enough to know which is ideal. I want to know what the best method is for making large graphene oxide membranes. The ...
1
vote
0answers
2k views

Evaporation of acetic acid

I performed aan acid catalysed haloform reaction in acetic acid to an acid. I need to evaporate acetic acid which I used as solvent and It is around 150 ml. What are the alternatives , I have a ...