Questions tagged [synthesis]

Synthesis is a purposeful execution of chemical reactions to obtain the desired product. Applies to long and complex natural product syntheses as much as to short one or two-step syntheses. This also covers synthetic problem sets and retrosynthetic analyses.

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Alternative to mercury bubbler for increasing boiling temp?

A common reaction for forming the octachlorodirhenate(III) anion is to heat tert-n-butylammonium perrhenate in benzoyl chloride at 209 ºC. If you look up the info for benzoyl chloride, one sees that ...
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481 views

Zinin Reduction of 1,3-dinitrobenzene

Remember asking my chemistry teacher this question in 1979/80: in the reduction of 1,3-dinitrobenzene with hydrogen sulphide/ aqueous ammonia, why is only one nitro group reduced?. He said that the ...
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Synthesis of a tungsten carbene bromide from [CpW(CO)3]-

I'm currently working through past test and exam papers in order to prepare for my organometallic test at the end of the month, but unfortunately I've gotten stuck on the following question. Since I ...
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300 views

Reaction with Urushibara Catalyst

I'm not a chemist, nor an organic chemistry student, but I do a lot of research. I have a question about the end of this synthesis. Dissolve 5g pure phenylnitropropene in 50ml Ethanol and add to Ni ...
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Can we create human muscles artificially?

Can chemical processes create sarcomeres? Not the entire cell with mitochondria, just what basically makes the muscle contract, myosin and actin, in the goal of reproducing our muscles. The source of ...
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147 views

“Synthetic wood” from cellulose and lignin?

Is there any research into making wood from its constituents? From what I know, wood is composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. We can extract these from raw wood, but is there any way we ...
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1k views

Mechanism for synthesis of 4-nitrophenylhydrazine from the diazonium salt of 4-nitroaniline

I am trying to figure out the mechanism to create 4-nitrophenylhydrazine from the diazonium salt of 4-nitroaniline. I've found a couple of explanations for what reactants are used, but I don't ...
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75 views

Shelf Life of Methylcyclopentadiene

We are making organometallics in the lab, but instead of just regular Cyclopentadiene dimer, we crack methylcyclopentadiene dimer to make methylcyclopentadiene. I cannot find the shelf life of ...
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How to perform oxidation of keto group in presence of hydroxyl group?

How to perform oxidation of keto group in presence of hydroxyl group. I fear there may be halogenation at $\ce{OH}$ group. Is there a way to protect the $\ce{OH}$ group ?
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104 views

What are the possible side reactions when preparing iron(III) naphthenate?

I am trying to prepare some iron(III) naphthenate. And the raw materials are : ferric(III) chloride, and naphthenate acid, NaOH, toluene, deionized water Everything worked well in lab scale: final ...
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How, chemically, would you remove protruding phenyl groups?

How, chemically, would you remove protruding phenyl groups? I mean for instance in the molecule phenethylamine there's a phenyl group sticking out (or protruding) how would you go about removing this ...
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207 views

Ester as a side product in the synthesis of bromoalkane from alcohol. Is it correct?

About 5 months ago, I answered a very interesting question albeit a very simple one. Why do we need sulfuric acid in creating alkyl bromide and not in creating alkyl iodide from alcohol and ...
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How concentrated does sulfuric acid need to be for nitric acid synthesis (H2SO4 + nitrate salt distillation)?

So I have a home lab setup and recently found myself in need of some nitric acid. I could just buy some, but I thought it would be a useful exercise to make my own. I have plenty of nitrate salts ...
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Nickel(II) acetylacetonate crystals coming out blue

An experiment in my class has us synthesising the acetylacetonate complex from hydrated nickel chloride being added to a solution of ammonia, acetylacetone and water. The products came out pale blue, ...
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Definition of throughput

I wonder what's the exact meaning of throughput in chemistry synthesis, eg. in organic synthesis or production of pharmaceutical products. For instance, what are their units? How are they measured? I'...
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40 views

Conversion of Erythrosine to Fluorescein

I am a home-chemist and I love dyes. I recently got my hands on sodium salt of erythrosine (tetra-iodinated fluorescein). I want to convert erythrosine to fluorescein. I speculate that using dilute ...
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35 views

Synthesis of Schiff Bases in Aqueous Media

The paper https://www.hindawi.com/journals/jchem/2013/909217/ describes a possibility to synthesize salicylaldehyde-based Schiff Bases using water as a solvent. Yields shown for the microwave-assisted ...
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19 views

L-lysine acetate synthesis

Is it possible to synthesize L-lysine acetate in the following steps? First, mix L-lysine HCl with an excess of NaOH and just enough water so that the total water in the product is enough to solve all ...
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42 views

Reaction with ethyl chloroacetate and potassium carbonate

I am carrying out a reaction using ethyl chloroacetate, potassium carbonate in acetone for a compound containing $\ce{-NH}$ group. So, the substitution will be at $\ce{-NH}$ position. I have tried ...
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39 views

How to get rid needle clogging on electrospinning of PLA/PCL/PMMA/Collagen?

For my thesis research, I dissolved PLA and PCL in chloroform: methanol (3:1), PMMA (350.000 MW, 13 wt%) in acetone, and collagen in acetate acid--and then, I mixed them together. The problem is when ...
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35 views

Selective Esterification of Amino Acid

I am going to prepare tert-butyl protected threonine. I was going for the classic esterification methodology which is acid catalyzed (sulfuric acid) esterification under reflux of tert butyl alcohol + ...
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Organometallic Synthesis: Cp2Ti(I)Me from TiCl4

I've been working on this synthesis question for a couple days but I'm a little stuck. The question is: Using only $\ce{TiCl_{4}}$, $\ce{NaCp}$, $\ce{PhLi}$, $\ce{MeI}$, and $\ce{EtMgBr}$, ...
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86 views

Why is t-BuOK necessary for this synthesis?

1-chloro-2-methylpropane --> 2-chloro-2-methylpropane. My understanding is that an E2 reaction produces two types of alkenes, the major product for non-sterically hindered bases is the more ...
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114 views

How to dissolve PLA/PCL/PMMA?

I have a research about electrospun membrane synthesis where I dissolve PLA pellets in chloroform:methanol (3:1) for 3 hours and also PCL pellets in chloroform:methanol (3:1) for 3 hours too. Another ...
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84 views

Why is phosphoric acid preferentially used for dehydrating alcohols during synthesis of alkenes?

I have also seen concentrated sulphuric acid being used, but what makes phosphoric acid preferable to sulfuric acid?
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102 views

Production of L-glucose

What chain(s) of reactions are used to produce L-glucose? I did a search on Google scholar but to my surprise nothing came up. My guess would be that the synthesis starts from D-glucose for which ...
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33 views

Changing the CO2 concentration (adding or subtracting) inside a sealed vessel?

I am looking for a method of modifying the CO2 concentration inside a sealed container that is both precise and repeatable (C02 needs adjustment every time the container is sealed, also need to be ...
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216 views

What is the role of NaCl in the functionalization of gold nanoparticles?

In the functionalization of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) through the sulfur-metal bond, this article (among others) states that $\ce{NaCl}$ is slowly added in the GNPs solution after addition of thiol ...
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5k views

How to make a primary alcohol from an alkane?

Alcohols can be made from alkyl halides, which can be made from alkanes. However $3° > 2° > 1° > 0°$ for alkyl halides synthesis from alkanes. What approach could make an alkane with primary ...
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Polymer synthesis with redox initiation

I made four different samples of poly acrylic nitrile (PAN) by going through a precipitation polymerization. The system was initiiated by the redox system $\ce{K2S2O8}$, $\ce{FeSO4}$ and $\ce{Na2S2O5}$...
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116 views

Synthesis of para-chloroanisole using diazotisation followed by chlorination with aluminium chloride

Is this a legitimate reaction scheme to synthesise para-chloroanisole from benzene and methanol as the only organic reactants? $$\ce{C6H6 -> HNO3/H2SO4 -> H2/Pd -> HONO/{Ethanol}\\ -> {...
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249 views

How is density “predicted”?

Hassium is predicted to be the densest element at 41 g/cm ^3, but how do you predict something like that? Wikipedia says there have only been 100 hassium atoms made to date and it's half life is less ...
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2k views

Synthesis of imine

This synthesis problem is giving me a lot of trouble. The main problem is that the four steps I have down I think are the only ones I need but there is another blank. Anyone have any thoughts?
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How can I best achieve a stable solution of Pt-Nanowires in water

I am synthesizing platinum nanowires ($50nm×20\mu m$) in aqueous solution. Unfortunately they start to aggregate rapidly, which is not desired. How can I keep them dispersed?
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The distinction between graphene supercapacitors and reduced graphite oxide supercapacitors

Looking at this study, Direct laser writing of micro-supercapacitors on hydrated graphite oxide films, a consumer laser cutter is used to synthesize reduced graphite oxide supercapacitors from ...
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374 views

Making benzoyl chloride - yellow liquid and a precipitate?

I am attempting to produce benzoyl chloride from benzoic acid (I need to convert an isotopically labeled version, so I can't just buy the acyl chloride). I am reacting benzoic acid with excess oxalyl ...
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454 views

Best Method To Make Large Graphene Oxide Sheets?

There are so many methods to make graphene oxide now, I'm not exactly experienced enough to know which is ideal. I want to know what the best method is for making large graphene oxide membranes. The ...
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2k views

Evaporation of acetic acid

I performed aan acid catalysed haloform reaction in acetic acid to an acid. I need to evaporate acetic acid which I used as solvent and It is around 150 ml. What are the alternatives , I have a ...
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650 views

Solublity of esters in Dichloromethane?

Are esters soluble in Dichloromethane? I have a ketone with methyl group at one end and on the other end a big biphenyl group with a 6 carbon long aliphatic chain at 4'. I am planning to oxidise the ...
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772 views

How to crystallize out reaction mixture from DMF?

Reaction was carried out in DMF, and TLC shows that the reaction has completed. But how to separate reaction mixture i.e. product from DMF? Edit Steglich Esterification was carried out and the ...
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302 views

Reactivity of thiosemicarbazide

How to form Schiff's Base at both the ends of the thiosemicarbazide? $\ce{NH2}$ of hydrazine part reacts easily to form Schiff's base i.e. imine. But $\ce{NH2}$ attached to $\ce{C=S}$ does not. How to ...
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120 views

Can an ethyl ester of L-proline be synthesised from the amino acid and ethyl alcohol in toluene with azeotropic distillation of water?

I was told that the ethyl ester of L-proline may not be synthesized from L-proline and ethyl alcohol in refluxing toluene, with an acid catalyst such as p-toluensulfonic acid for example, because ...
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578 views

Condensation of Ethylene Glycol

I'm looking to reflux a 250 mL of ethylene glycol solution. Would an Allihn condenser be suitable; if so what length?
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Cosmetic emulsifier

Hello and good morning! I currently have polysorbate 80 but I am looking into buying Peg 40 hydrogenated castor oil. I need an emulsifier in an oil to water facial cleanser. (20:80 oil to “water.” “...
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What is “activated red phosphorus”? What made it so long to be discovered?

[WP = white phosphorus ; RP = red phosphorus ; ARP = activated red phosphorus] Tom from Extraction & Ire did a video two years ago(2018) on converting WP to RP by keeping the former in sunlight ...
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Synthesis question: Using reductive amination to form pyrrolidine

What molecule results from treating 4-oxopentanal with $\ce{NH4Cl}$ and $\ce{NaCNBH3}$? Why? Is this a good, high yield reaction? I believe that pyrrolidine is formed because amination will convert ...
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34 views

Enamine Formation in a Diketone

I am trying to form an enamine, and I was trying to figure out if the following reaction is possible: Would this reaction terminate after the formation of the shown product, or will the other ...
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37 views

Why bridged bicyclic compound isn't a preferred product over fused bicylic compound in Robinson Annulation reaction?

Why a doubly-fused cyclohexanone is formed instead of bridged cyclohexanone like product which would be more flexible (entropically-favoured)? Also, the OH group not being at the bridgehead carbon ...
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Trying to synthesize and crystallize iron (iii) ammonium sulfate

I've been following instructions (from here, the first method) to synthesize iron (iii) ammonium sulfate and crystallize it. The first attempt was a fail, I spilled most of my solution and what I ...
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Is it possible to synthesize a benzene ring with every carbon on the ring substituted?

We recently began covering aromatic electrophillic substitution in my first year organic chemistry course, and we've been discussing the nature of certain functional groups being activating $(\ce{-OH},...