Questions tagged [synthesis]

Synthesis is a purposeful execution of chemical reactions to obtain the desired product. Applies to long and complex natural product syntheses as much as to short one or two-step syntheses. This also covers synthetic problem sets and retrosynthetic analyses.

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1answer
154 views

How do I prepare 2-(3-azido-3-oxopropoxy)ethyl methacrylate from methacrylic acid?

I am having some trouble finding a proper synthesis route for the following product. Originally, I was thinking of reacting methacrylic acid with a large excess of ethylene glycol (along with an acid ...
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2answers
245 views

Mechanism of conversion of Cr from FeCr2O4 (chromite)

The basic steps involved in the conversion of $\ce{FeCr2O4 -> Cr}$ involves, $$\ce{FeCr2O4 ->[NaOH / air, \Delta] Na_2CrO4 ->[C, \Delta] CrO3 ->[Al, \Delta] Cr}$$ Basically, I'm having ...
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135 views

Method for regioselective hydroalkylation of terminal alkyne

I'm trying to figure out a method to add a linear alkyl chain R and a hydrogen atom H across the triple bond of a terminal alkyne. The alkyl chain should end up on the internal carbon (C-2): My ...
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Conversion of Erythrosine to Fluorescein

I am a home-chemist and I love dyes. I recently got my hands on sodium salt of erythrosine (tetra-iodinated fluorescein). I want to convert erythrosine to fluorescein. I speculate that using dilute ...
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923 views

When can you use the direct flame of a Bunsen burner, and when must you boil a beaker of water first?

I'd like to ask when you would do the following: use the direct Bunsen flame to heat a substance; place the substance in a test tube, which is placed in a beaker of water, then boil the water with the ...
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43 views

Enamine Formation in a Diketone

I am trying to form an enamine, and I was trying to figure out if the following reaction is possible: Would this reaction terminate after the formation of the shown product, or will the other ...
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2answers
1k views

Can potassium nitrate and sulfuric acid be used to nitrate organics?

If we are doing a classic nitration to produce glyceryl trinitrate, one uses a mix of concentrated sulfuric and nitric acids. Additionally, one can produce concentrated nitric acid by distilling it ...
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Dispersity of synthetic DNA [closed]

Recently I was reading an article about DNA nanostructures and I was wondering-- I know that DNA in living systems is monodisperse, but when we make DNA synthetically, is it truly monodisperse or ...
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1answer
171 views

How do I prepare the following compound from diphenylmethane? [closed]

I am having trouble with the preparation of this product from diphenylmethane as a starting material. One of my thoughts was to attach the butene into the structure, but I don't see how it is viable. ...
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309 views

How does a cyclization occur with a carboxylic acid and (CF3CO)2O?

The product of the reaction below is unsaturated, bicyclic ketone, but I'm confused as to how (CF3CO)2O reacts with it to cause the cyclization. There is no base involved so I don't know how the ...
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113 views

How do you calculate the amount of substance from molar mass and volume [closed]

I am struggling with one calculation and it goes like this: Calculate, how much of $\ce{CO2}$ is made during the reaction: $\ce{2CO + O2}$, if we use $\pu{33,6 dm^3}$ of $\ce{O2}$, also calculate ...
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Retrosynthesis of spirocyclic compounds?

I have been trying to complete this retrosynthesis problem for a few days but can’t figure out how to get from Ester starting compound to a spirocyclic compound. I have tried removing the Ester but ...
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Why benzenediazonium bromide and iodide are not important?

When we think of aryldiazonium compounds, the first compound that comes to mind is benzenediazonium chloride. Sure thing, the compound is versatile and has been used to make a vast array of organic ...
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What is the order of adding chemicals in Hummers method for graphite oxide?

I am trying to make graphene oxide but failing miserably. The XRD peak is at 24 (2θ) instead of being near 10. Raman shows correct g and d peaks but are not very sharp. The colour of the end product ...
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137 views

Has anyone actually prepared Zn(HCO3)2 absent the presence of pressurized aqueous CO2?

Under normal conditions, I am not certain, as per Atomistry on $\ce{ZnCO3}$, the following quote: The hemihydrate, $\ce{2ZnCO3.H2O}$, was obtained by precipitating the solution of a zinc salt with ...
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What method do I use to synthesize propyl-2-(2-methylpropyl)-ether and why?

I need to know which method to use to synthesize propyl-2-(2-methylpropyl)-ether. I considered electrophilic addition of alcohols to alkenes, but I'm not really sure how the method works, and ...
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1answer
440 views

Kolbe Schmitt followed by methylation

The first step in this synthesis is a Kolbe Schmitt process, but why is two equivalents of base needed? Also, what is the purpose of the two equivalents of methyl iodide? I assumed that there will be ...
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Bioinformatics tools for predicting synthetic reaction for identified drugs?

We are aware of many bioinformatics open source tools like AUTODOCK, Smina for drug discovery through structure based virtual screening. I was wondering if there are validated bioinformatics tools ...
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1answer
685 views

How to convert benzene to N,N-dimethylbenzamide?

This is my solution to convert benzene to N,N-dimethylbenzamide. If you think is the right way, even just saying the equations are correct would help me! Thanks in advance.
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Why bridged bicyclic compound isn't a preferred product over fused bicylic compound in Robinson Annulation reaction?

Why a doubly-fused cyclohexanone is formed instead of bridged cyclohexanone like product which would be more flexible (entropically-favoured)? Also, the OH group not being at the bridgehead carbon ...
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2answers
365 views

What are the organic reactions that are taking place in this reaction?

I know that A is the product of a Knoevenagel condensation between the aldehyde and the diethyl malonate, due to the acidic protons of the latter, but I don't know what the reaction between that ...
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Synthesis of Schiff Bases in Aqueous Media

The paper https://www.hindawi.com/journals/jchem/2013/909217/ describes a possibility to synthesize salicylaldehyde-based Schiff Bases using water as a solvent. Yields shown for the microwave-assisted ...
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1answer
106 views

How to achieve regioselective (base-catalyzed) enolization of a carbonyl group in a diketone?

One can convert a ketone to an enolate, either base- or acid-catalyzed. Let's say you now have a diketone. You choose to treat this compound with base (e.g. hydroxide anion, alkoxide anion, LDA/THF, ...
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1answer
76 views

Synthetic route to a spirocyclic amide

I have a task to come up with a synthesis of the following molecule (2-azaspiro[5.5]undecan-3-one), but no starting materials have been explicitly specified: This is my idea. I think that all the ...
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2answers
610 views

Synthetic route to hydroxychloroquine

This drug hydroxychloroquine has become a new burning topic of discussion as a chemistry enthusiast: I know that in an industrial preparation we need to account fpr a lot of factors like temperature, ...
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798 views

Reaction of alkenes with AlCl3/HCl

I stumbled upon an interesting organic chemistry problem: Previously I thought $\ce{AlCl3}$ would only be used with benzene in acylation and alkylation, but apparently it can also be used in ...
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2answers
421 views

Nitrocellulose (flash paper) synthesis without Sulfuric Acid?

According to the Wikipedia page on Nitrocellulose: The process uses nitric acid to convert cellulose into cellulose nitrate and water: $$\ce{3HNO3 + C6H10O5 ->[H2SO4] C6H7(NO2)3O5 + 3H2O}$$ ...
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Trying to synthesize and crystallize iron (iii) ammonium sulfate

I've been following instructions (from here, the first method) to synthesize iron (iii) ammonium sulfate and crystallize it. The first attempt was a fail, I spilled most of my solution and what I ...
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77 views

Is it possible to synthesize a benzene ring with every carbon on the ring substituted?

We recently began covering aromatic electrophillic substitution in my first year organic chemistry course, and we've been discussing the nature of certain functional groups being activating $(\ce{-OH},...
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3answers
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What is the best way to make a substantial amount of soot in a high school laboratory?

I need to make about 50 grams of soot (carbon black particles) in a high school laboratory. What would be the best way to do this? The purpose of needing 50 grams of soot is because I would like to ...
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L-lysine acetate synthesis

Is it possible to synthesize L-lysine acetate in the following steps? First, mix L-lysine HCl with an excess of NaOH and just enough water so that the total water in the product is enough to solve all ...
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1answer
123 views

How can a β,γ-unsaturated ketone be converted to 1-pyrroline?

I am working towards a natural product. Presented are three intermediate compounds. After oxidation of the hydroxyl to a carbonyl, I want to introduce an imino-nitrogen atom into the structure. This ...
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1answer
417 views

Preparation of potassium cyanide from potassium ferrocyanide via HCN

Does anyone have any experience with the preparation of potassium cyanide from potassium ferrocyanide via $\ce{HCN}$ method? I did some math and am going to proceed eventually, any advice would be ...
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3answers
512 views

How to prepare cyclohexanone without starting with cyclohexanol?

What's an easy way to prepare cyclohexanone if I dont have direct access to cyclohexanol? I'm willing to synthesize cyclohexanol from more common materials, then make cyclohexanone from that. But most ...
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2answers
47 views

Chemoselectively dihydroxylate a terminal alkene in the presence of an internal alkene?

The goal is to dihydroxylate the exo alkene, and then convert to a ketone. Any suggestions would be apprecitated to either chemoselectively convert the terminal alkene, or directly convert the ...
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1answer
42 views

Too much leftover in zinc sulfate reaction?

I'm doing a reaction of zinc metal and sulfuric acid to get zinc sulfate. I've been trying to learn the chemistry lately so I tried to measure out correct molar amounts. My understanding from the ...
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1answer
324 views

Photosynthesis being a synthesis reaction [closed]

If a synthesis reaction is a reaction in which two or more substances react together to form just one product, then how is it that photosynthesis has two products; glucose and oxygen?
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Selective halogenation of an alkane

Is it possible to selectively halogenate a certain position on an alkane chain, and also get a good yield? I understand that to form such haloalkanes, taking a different substrate other than alkane (...
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3answers
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Do molecules with bridges through rings exist?

Do molecules with bridges through rings (in a manner illustrated by this) exist? I sometimes get results like this when doing Energy Minimization on molview.org. For example: Is this actually a ...
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0answers
202 views

Condensation reaction between catechol and acetone

I was thinking of ways to synthesize 2,2-bis(dihydroxyphenyl) propane and I thought it could be made by a condensation reaction between dihydroxybenzene (catechol) and acetone in strongly acidic ...
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1answer
102 views

How would one favor the formation of p-TsCl over o-TsCl in the chlorosuflonation of toluene? [closed]

I found an old synthesis of $\ce{o-TsCl}$ that purportedly gives a yield of $85\%$ here and was wondering how, still using chlorosulfonic acid, I could favor the formation of $\ce{p-TsCl}$ instead.
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1answer
138 views

Sodium hydride 60% dispersion in mineral oil [closed]

I've got a bottle of sodium hydride 60% dispersion in mineral oil. It's not "in mineral oil" it's just powder with an oil coating. I'm using it in an inert reaction, is there a way to remove the oil?
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1answer
124 views

Solvent for reaction mixture

I'm looking for some suitable solvent for ether cleavage of Guaiacol (o-Methoxyphenol) using aluminium triiodide ($\ce{AlI3}$) with $\ce{DMSO}$. The original paper calls for using hot acetonitrile as ...
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2answers
254 views

How is bromothymol blue synthetised?

In a classical reaction, phenolphthalein is synthetised from phthalic anhydride and phenol with acid catalyst. When one uses substituted phenols, one obtains similar compounds (e. g. cresolphthalein, ...
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1answer
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Simple synthesis of thiocyanates

Can sodium thiocyanate be synthesised by combining equimolar amounts of ammonia, sodium hydrosulfide and carbon dioxide in the presence of phosphorous pentoxide by the following reaction: NH3 + NaSH + ...
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Substituted Diene Preparation from Aniline / Novel Cyclic Imine Preparation

I have recently been studying the following mechanism recommended by another user from the following DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tet.2004.06.026. In this paper, the following mechanism is proposed (...
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168 views

What's the purpose of an ice bath when preparing a nitration mix from KNO3?

Most preparations for nitrocellulose from $\ce{(KNO3 + H2SO4)}$ mixture require the use of an ice bath during the process of dissolving $\ce{KNO3}$ into $\ce{H2SO4}$. Last time I did this I omitted ...
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1answer
85 views

Synthesis of the tetrachloroaluminate(III) anion

Looking for random chemicals, I found a reference on the anion and thought that it could be synthesised from common laboratory reagents: $$ \begin{align} \ce{2 Al + 2 NaOH + 2 H2O &-> 2 NaAlO2 ...
3
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1answer
156 views

What is the mechanism of this reaction?

I've been stuck with this for some time. I just don't see it. As the reactant is Pd(0), I think oxidative addition will happen to the bromine. Then I would say an insertion reaction happens. However ...
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1answer
89 views

Problem with synthesis of calcium formate

I just tried preparing calcium formate by adding $\ce{Ca(OH)2}$ to ammonium formate, but I observed no bubble formation and no smell of ammonia. Why doesn't calcium hydroxide, being a strong base, ...

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