Questions tagged [synthesis]

Synthesis is a purposeful execution of chemical reactions to obtain the desired product. Applies to long and complex natural product syntheses as much as to short one or two-step syntheses. This also covers synthetic problem sets and retrosynthetic analyses.

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Can we use phosphorous triiodide in Hell-Volhard-Zelinsky reaction?

With the help of HVZ reaction, we can get alpha-chloro or alpha-bromo carboxylic acid. But can we make alpha-iodocarboxylic acid with the help of HVZ reaction? I could not find any reference of HVZ ...
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821 views

Can I make Ferrofluid without evaporating Ammonium?

I want to make ferrofluid, which is ferromagnetic particles suspended in a carrier fluid. Three methods I have seen involve using magnetic ink (for MICR codes), cassette tapes, or ferric chloride as ...
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63 views

Mechanism of Hypervalent Iodine Phenolic Coupling

I need some help understanding the hypervalent iodine phenolic coupling reaction taking place in this synthesis of morphine, the reaction uses $\ce{PhI(OAc)2}$ as the hypervalent reagent and ...
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174 views

Have IH₃ and IH₅ already been synthesized?

I've seen a paper by Sikalov [1] that says that $\ce{IH3}$ and $\ce{IH5}$ should be observable. Has anyone actually tried to synthesize such molecules? References Sikalov, A. A. Hypervalent Halogen ...
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Will the sulfur-iodine cycle and Haber Method work at lower pressures and temperatures?

I have a year-long research project next year in my senior year of high school, in which we have to make some product or prototype to solve some issue. My interest was in the Liquid Fluoride ...
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235 views

How can I solve this synthesis?

I have this task to do: My solution: Is that possible? Can you please help me with the steps 2 and 3? This is what I did, but my teacher told me I should make the diketone (compound no. 5) from ...
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228 views

Accurate textbook about synthesis of (organophosphorus) chemical warfare agents

Lately I've been interested in the chemistry of nerve agents due to reading Patrick's Introduction to Medicinal Chemistry in which they were only briefly discussed. I bought the Handbook of Toxicology ...
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60 views

Cyclic polyynes

Cyclic polyynes have been proposed as theoretical compounds to illustrate the “particle on a ring” model discussed in many quantum chemistry courses. I've looked it up on Wikipedia but there it's not ...
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133 views

Seeking titanium compound, melting point <1600 °C, decomposes to TiO

The title says it all. I’m new to glass making, and I need a titanium compound that will render me $\ce{TiO}$ through decomposition, and has a melting point under 1600 °C. Hopefully I can get one ...
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1answer
622 views

How did the first amino acids appear on Earth?

Is there proof or a theory that shows that the first amino acid syntheses on Earth were influenced by a change in heat, gravity, radiation, or something similar?
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Where can I obtain research material on the synthesis of polypyrrole?

I'm studying Chemistry at A-level and a large part of the course is a researcher paper that takes most of the year. Conductive polymers interest me. I'm struggling to find any surfeited researcher on ...
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2-Iodoxybenzoic acid oxidation reaction

I was thinking about using 2-Iodoxybenzoic acid to selectively oxidize primary alcohols to aldehydes. I've found papers using various solvents like acetone/water mixture1, 2-methyl-2-propanol2, DMSO ...
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1answer
69 views

How does the position of hydroxyl group in a nucleotide monomer affect the dehydration synthesis of nucleotides?

In dehydration synthesis of nucleotides, the hydrogen atom from the 3' carbon on the deoxyribose sugar of one nucleotide reacts with the hydroxyl group on the phosphate group of another nucleotide to ...
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824 views

Reaction of alkenes with AlCl3/HCl

I stumbled upon an interesting organic chemistry problem: Previously I thought $\ce{AlCl3}$ would only be used with benzene in acylation and alkylation, but apparently it can also be used in ...
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210 views

Condensation reaction between catechol and acetone

I was thinking of ways to synthesize 2,2-bis(dihydroxyphenyl) propane and I thought it could be made by a condensation reaction between dihydroxybenzene (catechol) and acetone in strongly acidic ...
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57 views

Shi Epoxidation Issues - Any help would be appreciated

As part of my PhD project, I'm currently looking into running a Shi Epoxidation reaction. The first step is to reproduce the current literature on this reaction by using trans-stilbene as my substrate....
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134 views

Reagents for synthesis of ethyl 2-(2,3-dihydrobenzofuran-2-yl)acetate from naphthalen-1(4H)-one

The following conversion can be performed in a few steps. Show key intermediates and reagents (detailed mechanisms are not required). So I've been looking at this for a while and I can't seem ...
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517 views

Why is ethanol distilled off before adding water in the first step of a malonic synthesis?

I am doing a malonic synthesis shown below, and I wonder why I should distill ethanol off before adding water in the first step of the reaction (First I add absolute ethanol and solid sodium).
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296 views

Substitution of a cyclic diether by a halogen

I’m in an organic synthesis class and I have to draw a mechanism for the reaction in the picture. At first I thought it was just forming a free radical but I haven’t been able to find any way to do ...
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128 views

Benzyl (3,4-difluorophenyl)carbamate reaction with epoxide in basic conditions

I attempted this mechanism, however I am uncertain if I am correct.
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331 views

Synthesis from cyclic ketone to alcohol

How can I make the product in the picture below from cyclohexanone? I did Stork enamine synthesis, but it results in terminal primary alcohol. I need secondary alcohol with one more carbon atom at end....
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Degradation of Pd catalyst in Buchwald-Hartwig amination

I am conducting Buchwald-Hartwig amination. I use $\ce{Pd_2(dba)3}$ and $\ce{P(o-tol)_3}$ as catalyst and toluene as solvent. Temperature is 100 ℃ and reaction time is 24 hours. During the reaction, ...
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55 views

How can we synthesize 1,1-dichloro-2,2,3,3-tetramethylcyclopropane from pivaldehyde?

How to synthesize 1,1-dichloro-2,2,3,3-tetramethylcyclopropane from pivaldehyde? I don't know how to close the ring structure: Should we synthesize an epoxide first? I'd appreciate any tips regarding ...
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357 views

How is 3-bromocyclohexene converted to cyclohexane?

My attempt is illustrated below: or Which of these methods is most viable?
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74 views

About the Vilsmeier-Haack formylation of this compound

I was reading an article and found the following reaction sequence: The second step involves a formylation of the hydrazone with the Vilsmeier reagent to, first synthesize the pyrazole ring and then, ...
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95 views

Making a bridge on a cyclic molecule

So, my question is how would I make a bridge as seen on the following molecule (right side)? As for the molecule on the left, I am supposed to make it using that molecule as a base. The only ...
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66 views

Alpha-haloketone reaction with H2O in acid medium

I need help with this reaction, I know that in the first step an alpha haloketone is formed, but I can't figure out what reaction is going to happen between the alpha Haloketone and $\ce{H2O/H+}$. I ...
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315 views

How does a cyclization occur with a carboxylic acid and (CF3CO)2O?

The product of the reaction below is unsaturated, bicyclic ketone, but I'm confused as to how (CF3CO)2O reacts with it to cause the cyclization. There is no base involved so I don't know how the ...
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44 views

Bioinformatics tools for predicting synthetic reaction for identified drugs?

We are aware of many bioinformatics open source tools like AUTODOCK, Smina for drug discovery through structure based virtual screening. I was wondering if there are validated bioinformatics tools ...
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What is the largest one step radical cyclization ever achieved?

When I was an undergrad, roughly around 2005, I took a grad level class that covered various topics in advanced organic synthesis. I don't remember much clearly from the class, but one thing that I ...
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63 views

Molar ratios not leading to complete reaction in Schweizer's reagent production

In my home lab, I've reacted $\ce{Cu(OH)2}$ with aqueous ammonia to produce Schweizer's reagent. However, I'm surprised by the amount of ammonia required to react with this amount of $\ce{Cu(OH)2}$. ...
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Synthetic approach for precursor 1,1'-(bromomethylene)bis(1H-pyrazole) in ligand synthesis

Relevance During my Bachelor's project I focused on the synthesis of iron(II) complexes comprising a tetrapodal pentadentate ligand from the ligand family $\text{PY5R}_2\ (\text{R = H, Me, OH, OMe})$....
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680 views

Synthesis of anthranilic acid

Yesterday, I performed the synthesis of anthranilic acid (also known as, 2-aminobenzoic acid. I was instructed to use the common route that is also featured on the Wikipedia page for this compound. ...
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51 views

PLGA - poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) Synthesis

Does anyone have experience with the synthesis of PLGA? PLGA is synthesized by means of ring-opening co-polymerization of two different monomers, the cyclic dimers (1,4-dioxane-2,5-diones) of ...
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381 views

Reaction between Salicylaldehyde and 2-Benzoylpyridine

In a paper by Sheng et al (10.1016/j.dyepig.2018.07.036) the authors synthesize the compound MZC as shown in the scheme below. I'm looking for information about what the reaction mechanism is that ...
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175 views

N,N-Dimethyl-2-(indol-3-yl)glyoxylamide from indole

I would like to know how to obtain the following molecule, whose technical name should be something like N,N-dimethylindol-3-ylglyoxylamide (let's call it DMIG for short) One of the constraints being ...
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180 views

Role of Lewis acid in synthesis of adamantane from bicyclic species

What is the role of $\ce{AlCl3}$ in the following synthesis of adamantane? I'm guessing it functions as a Lewis acid, but I am unsure how the mechanism of the second step works, as there is no region ...
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125 views

Regioselectivity in the aldolcondensation towards (Z)-Jasmon

In the synthesis of (Z)-Jasmone via aldol-condensation as shown below, how can the observed regioselectivity be explained? After all, it is also possible to form the side product shown below. I ...
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Has Crabtree's photochemically-activated mercury-catalysed hydrocarbon activation process ever been used commercially?

In the 1980s, while searching for new hydrocarbon activation catalysts, Crabtree's research group accidentally found that mercury vapour activated photochemically could perform some interesting and ...
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583 views

Why is my Cu2O Cuprous Oxide Not Red

A thin film sample of polycrystalline Copper(I) Oxide (Cuprous Oxide, $\ce{Cu2O}$) on quartz looks reddish in the center but bluish/grayish at the sides where the film is thicker. The same thin film ...
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112 views

Selectivity of olefin cross-metathesis reaction

I'm looking at the reaction shown below which uses a ruthenium catalyst: I am confused because the ruthenium catalyst which is used in the reaction should be Z selective due to the features on the ...
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331 views

Reaction with Urushibara Catalyst

I'm not a chemist, nor an organic chemistry student, but I do a lot of research. I have a question about the end of this synthesis. Dissolve 5g pure phenylnitropropene in 50ml Ethanol and add to Ni ...
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Predicting a route to use chloride as a reducing agent for titanium dioxide under UV

In my lab we are deadlocked on a seemingly simple problem. We would like to find some reaction where $\ce{Cl-}$ can be used as a reducing agent on $\ce{TiO2}$ in a UV photosynthesis. We ideally want ...
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1answer
189 views

"Synthetic wood" from cellulose and lignin?

Is there any research into making wood from its constituents? From what I know, wood is composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. We can extract these from raw wood, but is there any way we ...
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Graph of compounds/reactions used on the industrial scale

I'm looking for a machine-readable database describing industrially useful reactions in terms of inputs, outputs, and (possibly) catalyzers etc. for a large portion of, or (much more preferable) the ...
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What are the specific disadvantages of using a bio-catalyst (called Lipolase) in the synthesis of the drug pregabalin?

I am studying the synthesis of a drug pregabalin, for which both chemical and bio-catalysts are used. Using a biocatalyst is way better than chemical route, as explained here. In fact, The invention ...
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137 views

What is the maximum amount of carbon atoms that can comprise a fullerene?

As the fullerene sum formula can be defined as Cn, with n being any integer that is not odd, is there any fundamental theoretical limit as to how big "n" can get? If there is no limit to the ...
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47 views

Synthesis of allylic ether, starting with phenalene

I stumbled across a retro-synthesis question, for which I don't know the exact answer; I prepared two synthesis ways, but I don't know if they could be realized in a lab. The question is the following:...
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123 views

What is "activated red phosphorus"?

[WP = white phosphorus ; RP = red phosphorus ; ARP = activated red phosphorus] A YT channel, Extraction & Ire has a video from two years ago (2018) on converting WP to RP by keeping the former in ...
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What is the order of adding chemicals in Hummers method for graphite oxide?

I am trying to make graphene oxide but failing miserably. The XRD peak is at 24 (2θ) instead of being near 10. Raman shows correct g and d peaks but are not very sharp. The colour of the end product ...