Questions tagged [synthesis]

Synthesis is a purposeful execution of chemical reactions to obtain the desired product. Applies to long and complex natural product syntheses as much as to short one or two-step syntheses. This also covers synthetic problem sets and retrosynthetic analyses.

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Chromium (IV) Oxide Sol Gel Process Synthesis and Properties

Is it is possible to solely synthesize an CrO2 aerogel through the Sol-Gel process? All documents I find are of a mix of oxides containing CrO2 as a supporting matrix but not alone. Would the CrO2 ...
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Hazard and precautionary statements

Is there a scientific database where one can find all the H and P statements for all chemicals? I would like to avoid using wikipedia but I can't find a database from a trusted source.
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End Group of Host-Guest Polymers

In synthesizing a host guest polymer, how can a host ion/molecule be included at solely at an extreme/point of the polymer, like an end group in a conventional polymer
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Source for literature yields [closed]

I'm required to compare and justify the yields of my reactions against literature yields, but I cannot find any sources of literature yields for the reactions, or any reactions for that matter. Are ...
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How can someone in the lab synthesize n-allyl-4methyl-benzenesulfonamide from 4-toluenesulfonyl chloride and allylamine [closed]

I am trying to figoure out the conditions and choice of solvents and catalysts in order to run this synthesis.
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TEMPO Radical Analogue

After investigating what makes the persistent radical TEMPO stable, I was wondering if another compound which is more feasible for my needs would be comparable to it. Would oxidizing 2,2’-dimethyl-...
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Succinic anhydride esterification won't go forward

I'm trying to react succinic anhydride with a decyl alcohol to produce mono-decyl succinate. Literature and Google searches suggest that the monoesterification should proceed without catalyst. However ...
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Is it possible to add R chain that contains a carbonyl (ketone) to the alpha carbon?

I'm trying to synthesize 2‐(3‐oxobutyl)cyclohexan‐1‐one from cyclohexanone: I thought about LDA, then adding an R group that has a ketone. Is that possible? As far as I know, we can add halogen or ...
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Electrolysis of brine solution gives sodium hydroxide , chlorine and hydrogen gas bur catner kellener cell it forms amalgam [closed]

Sodium hydroxide is generally prepared commercially by the electrolysis of sodium chloride in Castner-Kellner cell. A brine solution is electrolyzed using a mercury cathode and a carbon anode. Sodium ...
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Best way to handle phosphorus tribromide

I need to do an alcohol bromination using PBr3 and I've never done this reaction before. Reading about PBr3 I found it is water/air-sensitive and the bottle I bought doesn't have a seal. So how am I ...
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How to efficiently weight DCC (N,N'-Dicyclohexylcarbodiimide)?

I have to run a reaction using N,N'-Dicyclohexylcarbodiimide and at room temperature, it is solid, but it's very hard to weigh. I know its melting point is around 40 degrees. Is it better to melt it ...
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How is lapping slurry made?

I've recently gained an interest in the whole topic of lapping and the creation of flat surfaces. Lapping is done in different ways, but the one I'm interested in is essentially just rubbing 2 ...
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Mechanism of Hypervalent Iodine Phenolic Coupling

I need some help understanding the hypervalent iodine phenolic coupling reaction taking place in this synthesis of morphine, the reaction uses $\ce{PhI(OAc)2}$ as the hypervalent reagent and ...
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Why are halogens base sensitive groups (Wolff-Kishner Reduction)?

So while studying about Wolff-Kishner reduction reaction to form alkanes from carbonyl groups. I read that it is not suitable for base sensitive groups as the environment is highly basic and as an ...
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How can I synthesize 2‐amino‐3‐(chlorosulfonyl)benzoic acid from toluene or benzene?

I am trying to design a proper synthesis route for 2‐amino‐3‐(chlorosulfonyl)benzoic acid, though methyl 2‐amino‐3‐(chlorosulfonyl)benzoate—using an ester group in lieu of a carboxylic acid—would also ...
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Ring formation via oxymercuration-demercuration

I'm solving past problems from a 2014 Organic Chemistry II course (from a publicly available Harvard summer school Canvas page), when I came across this question: The answer (which is the reactant) ...
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Does DIBAL-H reduce alcohol?

Does DIBAL-H reduce alcohol? I was reading an article by Rentsch and Kalesse [1] and I came across this reaction, but could not figure out how the final compound is formed: Reference Rentsch, A.; ...
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Synthesis of anhydrous sodium tungstate

I am interested in preparing an anhydrous sample of sodium tungstate (Na2WO4), which is normally found as the dihydrate. Finding an example of this in literature is proving difficult, I am interested ...
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Converting bromobenzene to 1‐bromo‐3‐methylbenzene

I started by taking $\ce{FeCl3}$ to reduce electron-giving capacity of $\ce{Br}.$ Then we need a methyl at meta, so I thought about Friedel–Crafts acylation, but then also methyl will come at para.
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Retro Diels–Alder reaction in synthesis of corallopyronin A

I was looking at the synthesis of corallopyronin A in the following paper by Rentsch and Kalesse: Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2012, 51 (45), 11381–11384. There is one reaction which is described as ...
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Synthesizing 2-bromoaniline from bromobenzene

I am trying to synthesize 2-bromoaniline from bromobenzene. I came up with a reaction path, but I want your thoughts on whether this is feasible and can produce a decent yield. Sulfonation of ...
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Make Acetic Acid from wood

I would like to know if it would be possible to make Acetic Acid from Wood. I know that you can charcoal wood to get the gases, cool it, and get the liquid. This would yield a bunch of chemicals in a ...
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How to synthesize 3‐cyclopentylpropanal from (chloromethyl)cyclopentane?

I am not sure on how to start, but I think of these two possible ways: Reacting the starting material with Grignard reagent and then oxidise the product with PCC to produce the aldehyde; Hydrolysis ...
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Why use Stork enamine alkylation?

I recently learned about the Stork enamine alkylation method of adding electrophiles to the beta carboxyl position on a molecule. But I can't seem to find out why a direct synthesis is not possible (...
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Reaction analogous to burning that causes cooling rather than releasing heat [closed]

Is it physically and chemically possible to design both a gas and a solid substance, such that there would be a technologically feasible initiation of a chain reaction analogous to the spark that ...
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Why does B12H12 Borane not exist? [duplicate]

Whenever I searched "$\ce{B12H12}$ Borane", I can't seem to find anything, and get met with only the dianion of $\ce{B12H12}$. Why doesn't $\ce{B12H12}$ exist on its own?
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When writing a paper should I describe the procedure thoroughly? [closed]

I have not written any article on a chemistry subject yet, and I want to use good practices from the start. What I have noticed reading papers, is that a lot of times it is not specified the exact ...
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How do I synthesise this tertiary amide from these 5 compounds?

So basically I'm at a loss as to how to proceed. I started with the idea of converting the primary alcohol into an aldehyde and that is where I stoped. I understand that each substituent of the ...
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Cosmetic emulsifier

Hello and good morning! I currently have polysorbate 80 but I am looking into buying Peg 40 hydrogenated castor oil. I need an emulsifier in an oil to water facial cleanser. (20:80 oil to “water.” “...
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Acid boric preparation [closed]

Is there a simple reaction to yield boric acid ($\ce{H3BO3}$) from boron trifluoride ($\ce{BF3}$)?
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How concentrated does sulfuric acid need to be for nitric acid synthesis (H2SO4 + nitrate salt distillation)?

So I have a home lab setup and recently found myself in need of some nitric acid. I could just buy some, but I thought it would be a useful exercise to make my own. I have plenty of nitrate salts ...
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how is the esterification of amino acid carried on in this reaction

i was asked to synthesis this compound from this amino acid, i first alkylated the alpha carbon using enolate alkylating method then i esterficated the amino acid but i'm doubtful that my steps are ...
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Synthesis of Pyrene from Benzene

I know of this ring expansion reaction that can fuse a benzene ring with another benzene ring: Performing this reaction twice gives us phenanthrene How would one go about synthesizing pyrene from ...
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What is “activated red phosphorus”? What made it so long to be discovered?

[WP = white phosphorus ; RP = red phosphorus ; ARP = activated red phosphorus] Tom from Extraction & Ire did a video two years ago(2018) on converting WP to RP by keeping the former in sunlight ...
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Retrosynthesis suggestion [closed]

Am I even close to solve this problem or it is a complete disaster?
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Weinreb ketone synthesis [closed]

For this problem, Can I use weinreb ketone synthesis? I found the product but not sure it is the right one If the amide react with either R1-Mgbr or R2-Li, then it produces the ketone?
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What does washing and drying a solution mean?

After combining two solutions, a direction in a 1970s British chemistry book says to wash the new solution with a mixture of baking soda, table salt, and water. Then it says to dry it with anhydrous ...
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Why does the titanium go to the tungsten filament in the crystal bar process?

I've tried to read a report by the US atomic energy commission [1], but couldn't really find the answer, or maybe I missed it. Why is the gaseous titanium deposited on the tungsten wire/filament ...
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157 views

How to synthesize 4‐[(4,4‐dimethylpentyl)oxy]‐2,2,8,8‐tetramethylnonane starting with 4,4‐dimethylpent‐1‐ene?

My attempt: I don’t know how to add another chain. I think I probably need to react with another A molecule, but I don’t know the mechanism. Can anyone help me with this?
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Which amino acids can be totally synthesized? [closed]

I can't find information regarding which amino acids (say the proteinogenic ones or in general) can be totally synthesized. Is there a reference?
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Nickel(II) acetylacetonate crystals coming out blue

An experiment in my class has us synthesising the acetylacetonate complex from hydrated nickel chloride being added to a solution of ammonia, acetylacetone and water. The products came out pale blue, ...
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How does the position of hydroxyl group in a nucleotide monomer affect the dehydration synthesis of nucleotides?

In dehydration synthesis of nucleotides, the hydrogen atom from the 3' carbon on the deoxyribose sugar of one nucleotide reacts with the hydroxyl group on the phosphate group of another nucleotide to ...
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Why did ammonium chloride fumes turned pink in this synthesis?

I was watching the synthesis of tetrasulfur tetranitride performed by Tom on his Youtube channel, Explosion & fire. He followed the basic route: adding ammonia gas to sulfur chlorides ($\ce{SCl2}$ ...
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370 views

How are organic compounds with radioactive atoms synthesized? [closed]

We often see reactions such as these in textbooks to highlight how reaction mechanisms work: How are the radioactive substrates required for these mechanisms synthesized in the first place? There ...
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105 views

Laboratory and commercial preparations of aniline other than reduction of nitroarenes [closed]

Till now I could only find one laboratory preparation of aniline, i.e. reducing nitrobenzene with $\ce{Sn}$ and concentrated $\ce{HCl}$. I'm confused if Hofmann degradation is only commercial. I'd ...
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63 views

Synthesis Problem? [closed]

What I tried to do is this: Opening the epoxide using $\ce{^-OCH2CH2CH3}$. But then I have two alcohols and I get stuck. It's possible in one way but takes more than 4 steps...
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Why did my synthesis of calcium peroxide fail? [closed]

I dissolved calcium acetate in about $\pu{80 mL}$ of water and added $\pu{30 mL}$ of 60% peroxide. I should have obtained calcium peroxide which is insoluble in water, but i saw no precipitate. I read ...
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382 views

Synthesing tetrahydropyran from ethylene oxide

I thought that the first step must be using a Grignard reagent to add carbons, but I need a hydroxyl group on the carbon on the other side to make it a diol and produce the product given, but nothing ...
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Synthesis question: Using reductive amination to form pyrrolidine

What molecule results from treating 4-oxopentanal with $\ce{NH4Cl}$ and $\ce{NaCNBH3}$? Why? Is this a good, high yield reaction? I believe that pyrrolidine is formed because amination will convert ...
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Definition of throughput

I wonder what's the exact meaning of throughput in chemistry synthesis, eg. in organic synthesis or production of pharmaceutical products. For instance, what are their units? How are they measured? I'...

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