Questions tagged [synthesis]

Synthesis is a purposeful execution of chemical reactions to obtain the desired product. Applies to long and complex natural product syntheses as much as to short one or two-step syntheses. This also covers synthetic problem sets and retrosynthetic analyses.

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14
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2answers
41k views

Reactions of alcohol with sulfuric acid

I knew two chemical reactions of alcohol with sulfuric acid $\ce{CH3CH2OH + H2SO4 -> CH2CH2}$ Here product is having a double bond (ethene) and this reaction happens at 443 K temperature. $\ce{...
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Why are solid phase organics often conjugated to HCl?

Many uncharged organic compounds are sold in solid phase with HCl conjugate - e.g. the antihistamine diphenhydramine.HCl or the derivitizing agent pentafluorobenzyl hydroxylamine.HCl, among many ...
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How to prepare potassium cyanide from potassium ferrocyanide

How do we prepare potassium cyanide from potassium ferrocyanide? It is something which I am curious about, but cannot find the answer. I am studying inorganic chemistry but this reaction cannot be ...
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1k views

Interlocked cyclic compounds

Being new to chemistry, there may ought to be some properties I couldn't understand fully. One of them being cyclic compounds. One particular question about this is, whether these cyclic compounds, ...
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What is the mechanism of the reaction between hexane-2,5-dione and nitrous acid?

I don't understand the mechanism of the first reaction; I tried different ways but I can usually find how to make the ring without the double bonds, but it's obviously not the right thing; I think ...
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1answer
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Nitration of pyrrole with sulfuric and nitric acids

Would 2,5-dinitropyrrole be a product of nitration of pyrrole with $\ce{H2SO4/HNO3}$? It seems that 2,5-dinitropyrrole is not formed when using $\ce{Ac2O/HNO3}$ (ref 1). Is this just because of the ...
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Can we use PI3 in HVZ reaction?

With the help of HVZ reaction, we can get alpha-chloro or alpha-bromo carboxylic acid. But can we make alpha-iodocarboxylic acid with the help of HVZ reaction? I could not find any reference of HVZ ...
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3answers
507 views

Energy-efficiency aside, what are the chemical constraints on CO₂ capture and methanation?

Synthesising $\ce {CH4}$ from air and water (in a non-biological process) has been proposed as one form of energy storage. What are the chemical constraints at play here? That is to say, what sort of ...
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1answer
2k views

Synthesis of 2-methyl-4-nitrophenol from benzene?

Benzene first reacts with the reagents $\ce{CH3Cl/AlCl3}$, to attach a methyl ($\ce{CH3}$) group to the benzene ring. Then I suggested reacting with $\ce{OH-}$. Because the methyl group is an ...
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1answer
277 views

Were gold(II) complexes synthesized for the first time in 2017?

Recently in the Google news feed, I discovered this news: Gold stabilized in very rare oxidation state +II Missing golden link found: Divalent gold complex isolated for the first time in a ...
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Can salicylic acid be synthesized from salicylaldehyde?

You have a bottle of salicylaldehyde. And you want to make salicylic acid from salicylaldehyde. You can use all reagents and catalyst to make salicylic acid. I think salicylic acid can be synthesized ...
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Making carbon monoxide gas from formic acid and sulfuric acid?

Can I create carbon monoxide gas by just mixing formic acid and sulphuric acid together? Or do they have to be heated?
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Make tin nitrate? [closed]

How can tin nitrate be synthesized? Mixing nitric acid and tin makes tin oxide (I did this in chemistry class) so how can tin nitrate be created?
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1answer
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How can I prepare Sn(NO3)2?

What is the method to be followed to prepare $\ce{Sn(NO3)2}$? I tried to prepare $\ce{Sn(NO3)2}$ from reaction below: $$\ce{SnCl2 + 2HNO3-> Sn(NO3)2 + 2HCl}$$ But $\ce{SnCl2}$ is not soluble. We ...
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Can I synthesize iron acetate like this?

The oxidation state of the iron doesn't matter too much; I am just trying to make an attractive red-brown ink. Here are some instructions I prescribed to a friend. Here's an approximately decent ...
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1answer
611 views

How to synthesize Boron tri-fluoride using Boron Oxide

I am finding different equations for the synthesis. My lecture handout suggests a reaction with Sodium tetrafluroborate and Sulfuric acid. This is fine but I have to remember this for an exam and that ...
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How do you create primary amines from alcohols?

By a primary amine I mean a compound where the hydroxyl group of the corresponding alcohol is replaced with an amine group.
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Clemmensen reduction vs. Wolff-Kishner reduction

In which cases is the Clemmensen reduction is preferred over the Wolff-Kishner reduction? One thing is that the Clemmensen reduction is done under acidic conditions whereas the Wolff-Kishner ...
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1answer
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Mechanism for basic hydrolysis of α-chloronitrile to ketone?

In Corey's 1969 prostaglandin synthesis,1 compound 2 is formed from compound 1 by: [...] treatment with 2.5 equiv of potassium hydroxide (added as a hot saturated aqueous solution) in dimethyl ...
7
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1answer
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Bromination of hexene in presence of UV light or heat

The reaction between hexene and bromine in presence of light gives 3-bromocyclohexene. Why is 1,2-dibromocyclohexane not formed instead?
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1answer
640 views

What is the chemistry behind this “petrol from air” technology?

A recent news report in the UK claimed a breakthrough in making a petrol equivalent from carbon dioxide and water: A small British company has produced the first "petrol from air" using a ...
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Which platonic solids have been built as carbon skeletons?

There are 5 platonic solids: the tetrahedron, the octahedron, the cube, the dodecahedron and the icosahedron. How many of these have been realised as carbon skeletons by chemical synthesis?
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What is the geometric configuration of the four fluorine atoms during the synthesis of xenon tetrafluoride?

Neil Bartlett (1932–2008) first synthesized $\ce{XeF4}$ (and $\ce{XeF6}$) in 1962. In the synthesis, a nickel chamber is used, and heated to 400°C, causing the formation of $\ce{NiF4}$, which ...
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1answer
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Preparation of oxalic acid from acetylene

I would like to, theoretically, prepare oxalic acid from acetylene. I think that using ozonolysis would be a good idea to do so. Upon ozonolysis of acetylene, we would get: $$\ce{O=CH_2-H_2C=O}$$ ...
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1answer
695 views

Simple experiments involving enantiomer synthesis

I want to do an experiment to investigate factors affecting the synthesis of chiral molecules. The only problem is, my institution doesn't have much money, and it seems like the chemicals required for ...
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Mercury assisted deprotection of dithiane

1,3 dithianes are used in umpolung reactions and can be deprotected by mercury containing compounds - but could anyone help explain what the exact mechanism is? Many texts seem to skim over this by ...
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Effect of Zn dust reduction of phenolic -OH group on other groups

We use distillation with zinc dust to remove -OH group from phenol. $$\ce{Ph-OH + Zn \rightarrow Ph-H + ZnO }$$ What I want to know is that whether this reaction has any effect on other groups ...
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2answers
365 views

What does the “h” “k” and “(5.2.2.02,6)” mean in Dibenzo(h,k)-4-oxatricyclo(5.2.2.02,6)undec-8,10- diene-3, 5-dione

I am preparing to do an experiment that involves synthesizing Dibenzo(h,k)-4-oxatricyclo(5.2.2.02,6)undec-8,10- diene-3, 5-dione via a Diels-Alder reaction. Could someone please explain the ...
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Is there a simple and inexpensive way to generate nitrogen gas?

It's fairly easy to generate a significant yield of hydrogen gas simply by reacting zinc metal with $\ce{HCl}$ or aluminum with $\ce{NaOH}$ solution. But is there a simple and inexpensive chemical ...
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1answer
206 views

How is the yield of a complex organic synthesis defined?

I just watched the Periodic Table of Videos episode Deadly Strychnine that describes the history of this particularly challenging synthesis. University of Nottingham chemist Rob Stockman calls the ...
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1answer
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Why is the Friedel-Crafts alkylation of nitrobenzene disfavoured?

Suggest a synthetic route to m-nitrotoluene, starting from benzene. The conversion can be achieved in two ways: $\hspace{10 mm}$ or: However, the first route is not possible as the Friedel-Crafts ...
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2answers
620 views

Finding all Chemical Reactions Given Products and Reactants

Suppose only a set of chemical formulas is given. How can you find all mathematically possible chemical equations whose educts and products are only from this set? Take e.g. the set $\{ \ce{C, H2, O2,...
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What is this brown liquid that I got when I boiled glycerol and water solution?

I boiled a solution of glycerol and water at about 160 degree Celsius and got a brown liquid much less in volume (boiled off the entire water I think; also not so sure about the accurate temperature). ...
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1answer
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Double alkylation of benzene to form tetralin

I have been asked to suggest a synthesis for the following compound (tetralin) from benzene: I am unsure how to do this. It surely can't be Friedel–Crafts alkylation because of carbocation ...
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4answers
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Synthesis of hydrazine with bleach and ammonia

I am trying to make rocket fuel using hydrazine, hydrogen peroxide and home products. I want to put an action figure in orbit. Is there any way to synthesize hydrazine with bleach and ammonia, using $...
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3answers
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Increasing the length of a carbon chain in an alkane

What would be the best reaction to increase the carbon chain length in an alkane? Preferably, it would be by one at a time; however, if that is not possible, just generally increasing the total length ...
8
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1answer
418 views

Stereochemistry of epoxide hydrolysis under acidic conditions

The epoxide on the top of the picture, in aqueous acid hydrolyzes to the compound below. What is the mechanism of this reaction? Standard epoxide opening in acidic conditions would happen at the more ...
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4answers
436 views

How do I create a concentrated solution of singlet oxygen (in the dark)?

Without appealing to reactions that require photons / light, how do chemists achieve a very high concentration of continually produced, though quite short lived, singlet oxygen in aqueous solution (i....
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Will this reaction form magnesium carbonate?

I have magnesium oxide pills I take. I know if I dissolve them they'll form magnesium hydroxide, and I'm trying to make pure magnesium from my pills. I've come up with a double replacement reaction, ...
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1answer
1k views

Cyclopentyl to cyclohexyl carbocation rearrangement

Here is my problem. The mechanism seems pretty straightforward, but I am having trouble converting the cyclopentane to a cyclohexane. During a synthesis problem, does the starting material add the ...
5
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1answer
318 views

Stereochemistry of product in Diels-Alder reaction

I have a few questions on this problem I solved: 1) Why does carbon "b" on methyl vinyl ketone attack carbon "5" on the lactone? Why not carbon "2"? 2) The answer key says that the end product ...
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2answers
442 views

How to develop a retrosynthesis plan for 2-[(E)-2-(3-bromophenyl)ethenyl]-1,3-benzoxazole?

I need to retro-synthetically design a valid synthesis plan (in two steps, from cheap starting materials available over at Sigma Aldrich) for a target compound, pictured below. How would I go about ...
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1answer
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What are the steps to creating synthetic glucose?

I need to know how to go about creating synthetic glucose with generally available materials. As I am aware of both photosynthesis and glucose in nature, I will not need lessons in how plants produce ...
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0answers
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Has Crabtree's photochemically-activated mercury-catalysed hydrocarbon activation process ever been used commercially?

In the 1980s, while searching for new hydrocarbon activation catalysts, Crabtree's research group accidentally found that mercury vapour activated photochemically could perform some interesting and ...
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2answers
617 views

How can 2-indanone be prepared?

Would adding phosgene to ortho-xylene lead to the formation of 2-indanone?
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1answer
414 views

How to make p-chloroanisole from methanol and benzene?

I am tasked to synthesise para-chloroanisole from methanol and benzene. Other reagents are permitted. Would it be correct to have the benzene attack the methanol $\ce{H}$ and then attack the ...
3
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1answer
103 views

Viability of proposed carbon-carbon bond-forming reaction

Here is my proposed synthetic pathway to make propanoic acid from bromoethane: $\ce{CH3-CH2Br ->[\ce{KCN(aq)}][\text{heat}] CH3-CH2-C#N}$ $\ce{CH3-CH2-C#N ->[\ce{KOH(aq)}][\text{heat ...
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0answers
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Molar ratios not leading to complete reaction in Schweizer's reagent production

In my home lab, I've reacted $\ce{Cu(OH)2}$ with aqueous ammonia to produce Schweizer's reagent. However, I'm surprised by the amount of ammonia required to react with this amount of $\ce{Cu(OH)2}$. ...
3
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2answers
592 views

How to convert Mn2O3 to Mn3O4?

I was preparing $\ce{Mn3O4}$ but it was when characterized by XRD, a $\ce{Mn2O3}$ phase existed. Now how can I convert $\ce{Mn2O3}$ to $\ce{Mn3O4}$?
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2answers
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Will cyanide substitute bromine in bromobenzene?

I've considered synthesizing benzoic acid from bromobenzene using CN-, and subsequently treating the nitrile with acid and heat. But, is this possible?