Questions tagged [synthesis]

Synthesis is a purposeful execution of chemical reactions to obtain the desired product. Applies to long and complex natural product syntheses as much as to short one or two-step syntheses. This also covers synthetic problem sets and retrosynthetic analyses.

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What is the maximum amount of carbon atoms that can comprise a fullerene?

As the fullerene sum formula can be defined as Cn, with n being any integer that is not odd, is there any fundamental theoretical limit as to how big "n" can get? If there is no limit to the ...
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Is it possible to make strong acids using (relatively) weak acids? [closed]

One of the routes of making hydrogen chloride involves heating a mixture of sodium bisulfate and sodium chloride. Considering that the equilibrium is constantly forced to shift to the right by ...
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Does the Oxy or Alkoxy Claisen Rearrangement Exist?

@Waylander's cogent Comment to the query of @Random Guy inspired me to post a problem in synthesis to test a question I have pondered for some time. The activation energy (AE) for the Cope ...
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What is this brown liquid that I got when I boiled glycerol and water solution?

I boiled a solution of glycerol and water at about 160 degree Celsius and got a brown liquid much less in volume (boiled off the entire water I think; also not so sure about the accurate temperature). ...
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Make Acetic Acid from wood

I would like to know if it would be possible to make Acetic Acid from Wood. I know that you can charcoal wood to get the gases, cool it, and get the liquid. This would yield a bunch of chemicals in a ...
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How does the position of hydroxyl group in a nucleotide monomer affect the dehydration synthesis of nucleotides?

In dehydration synthesis of nucleotides, the hydrogen atom from the 3' carbon on the deoxyribose sugar of one nucleotide reacts with the hydroxyl group on the phosphate group of another nucleotide to ...
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pKa of the alpha proton of an alpha amino ester [closed]

Is there a theoretical pKa value for the proton on the alpha carbon of a methylated amino acid, or just a general alpha amino methyl ester?
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Degradation of Pd catalyst in Buchwald-Hartwig amination

I am conducting Buchwald-Hartwig amination. I use $\ce{Pd_2(dba)3}$ and $\ce{P(o-tol)_3}$ as catalyst and toluene as solvent. Temperature is 100 ℃ and reaction time is 24 hours. During the reaction, ...
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Why is ethanol distilled off before adding water in the first step of a malonic synthesis?

I am doing a malonic synthesis shown below, and I wonder why I should distill ethanol off before adding water in the first step of the reaction (First I add absolute ethanol and solid sodium).
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Can amide form Schiff base?

Can amide ($\ce{RCONH2}$) form Schiff base? When I searched for it, most papers deal with aliphatic amines. Some paper conducted synthesis with amide-containing compound, but iminization occured at β-...
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Struggling to make SMCC

I have attempted to synthesize SMCC (succinimidyl 4-(N-maleimidomethyl)cyclohexane-1-carboxylate) following the lit protocol in J. Org. Chem. 2011, 76, 21, 9169–9174. Except for the scale, I followed ...
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Can imines be catalytically hydrogenated?

Can imines be catalytically hydrogenated? According to the DEA this appears to be possible. However I cannot find any other references to catalytic hydrogenation of imines anywhere else. http://...
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Synthesis of allylic ether, starting with phenalene

I stumbled across a retro-synthesis question, for which I don't know the exact answer; I prepared two synthesis ways, but I don't know if they could be realized in a lab. The question is the following:...
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How can we synthesize this cycloester, starting with methyl 4-phenylbutanoate?

I was wondering how to realize following synthesis: I am struggling with this one; for sure, this has something to do with the benzyl position which is particularly reactive, and something ...
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Reason for adding TFAA in this synthesis pathway?

I have included a short part from a synthetic pathway from: https://synarchive.com/syn/112 $\ce{Mg3N2}$ reacts with $\ce{MeOH}$ to liberate $\ce{NH3}$ which I believe is used in nucleophilic ...
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Reasons for scratching the wall of a flask when precipitate crystals [closed]

I heard that scratching the wall of the flask helps precipitate crystals when obtaining crystals. By scratching the wall of the flask, the crystals from it fall in the center and act as seeds to help ...
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Organic synthesis problems

I am an A-level student going into university and I am looking for a source of organic synthesis problems and answers that is freely available on the internet. The difficulty level I am looking for is ...
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How can we synthesize 1,1-dichloro-2,2,3,3-tetramethylcyclopropane from pivaldehyde?

How to synthesize 1,1-dichloro-2,2,3,3-tetramethylcyclopropane from pivaldehyde? I don't know how to close the ring structure: Should we synthesize an epoxide first? I'd appreciate any tips regarding ...
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Synthesis of an epoxide from 1,2-diol

Why is there no formation of epoxide when the two OH-groups are on different planes? I do understand the epoxidation mechanism. However, I would be grateful if someone cleared the specific ...
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Side-chain Oxidation vs Oxidative Cleavage

When the above compound is subjected to acidified $\ce{KMnO4}$, can both side chain oxidation and oxidative cleavage of $\ce{C=C}$ bond occur? Or will one have priority over the other?
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Method to remove impurities from acetaminophen synthesis experiment

I'd like to know about impurities from acetaminophen synthesis experiment. Are there any impurities produced by oxidation of p-aminophenol? If there is any impurity produced by oxidation of p-...
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What is the maximum length of peptide which considered to be hard for synthesis by the current technology?

I am a molecular biologist and work with recombinant proteins. I am wondering what the cut point, in terms of length, is at which I should produce the peptide using heterologous expression rather than ...
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What is "activated red phosphorus"?

[WP = white phosphorus ; RP = red phosphorus ; ARP = activated red phosphorus] A YT channel, Extraction & Ire has a video from two years ago (2018) on converting WP to RP by keeping the former in ...
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Effect of Zn dust reduction of phenolic -OH group on other groups

We use distillation with zinc dust to remove -OH group from phenol. $$\ce{Ph-OH + Zn \rightarrow Ph-H + ZnO }$$ What I want to know is that whether this reaction has any effect on other groups ...
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Differences in activated manganese dioxide synthesis

I've looked into preparations of activated manganese dioxide for some time now, and what confused me is the contrast between the original Attenborough method and some of the alternatives. A solution ...
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Can two two-material composite precipitation methods be used to make one three-material composite?

There are many methods used in the synthesis of cellulose nanocomposites, including Fe₃O₄@Cellulose in urea, ammonia, and water solution and immersing the product in sulfuric acid, or somewhat ...
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Sodium acetate stoichiometry from baking soda and vinegar

I want to make sodium acetate from sodium bicarbonate and vinegar. I'm a bit stumped at calculating amounts of each reagent. I'm starting with 8% acetic acid vinegar. I was going to add, to 1 L of the ...
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Choosing reaction stoichiometry in organic synthesis

Reading papers about organic synthesis, I see many cases like setting one material as 1.2 eq. I presume that reagents used more than 1 equiv are relatively inexpensive or less reactive than other ...
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Problem about TLC solvent and staining

I am conducting an organic synthesis involving 1-aza-18-crown-6-ether. I tried TLC, but they didn't work well. I have tried: (1) hexane+ethyl acetate in various ratio, (2) dichloromethane:methanol=3:1,...
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Why doesn't aromatic substitution add at multiple positions in one reaction?

When you do aromatic substitutions, you usually see the major products with one substituent added. My question is why can't you add multiple substituents in one reaction? For example, the image below ...
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What happens to the t-butyl cation in the TFA deprotection of a t-butyl ester?

I am a first-year chemistry graduate student and I am currently learning how to synthesize proteins. I have reached a stage in the process where I need to deprotect a carboxylic acid moiety protected ...
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Nitrocellulose (flash paper) synthesis without Sulfuric Acid?

According to the Wikipedia page on Nitrocellulose: The process uses nitric acid to convert cellulose into cellulose nitrate and water: $$\ce{3HNO3 + C6H10O5 ->[H2SO4] C6H7(NO2)3O5 + 3H2O}$$ ...
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Setting up reactor in inert atmosphere

I am searching for reactor set-up that can maintain inert atmosphere, and found that many organic synthesis labs use Schlenk line. But organic synthesis is not main thing of my lab, so there is some ...
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How is 3-bromocyclohexene converted to cyclohexane?

My attempt is illustrated below: or Which of these methods is most viable?
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Can potassium nitrate and sulfuric acid be used to nitrate organics?

If we are doing a classic nitration to produce glyceryl trinitrate, one uses a mix of concentrated sulfuric and nitric acids. Additionally, one can produce concentrated nitric acid by distilling it ...
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How can I make cerium(IV) chloride? [closed]

How can I make CeCl4? I have some ideas but am worried I'm going to mess it up since this is the first time I've worked with lanthanides.
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Synthesis of active chemical manganese dioxide (CMD) for primary alcohol oxidation

This paper1 uses chemical manganese dioxide (CMD) instead of activated manganese dioxide for mild alcohol oxidation. I'm looking for a route on how to synthesize active CMD. Could this work? $$\ce{...
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Method of separating product and conserving the catalyst

I'm looking for a way to separate reaction product of iodobenzene with ethyl 2-methyl-3-oxopentanoate in 1,4-dioxane (toluene is an alternative as a solvent). The catalyst being used is $\ce{Pd2(DBA)3}...
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2-Iodoxybenzoic acid oxidation reaction

I was thinking about using 2-Iodoxybenzoic acid to selectively oxidize primary alcohols to aldehydes. I've found papers using various solvents like acetone/water mixture1, 2-methyl-2-propanol2, DMSO ...
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"Synthetic wood" from cellulose and lignin?

Is there any research into making wood from its constituents? From what I know, wood is composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. We can extract these from raw wood, but is there any way we ...
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Decarboxylation of primary amino acids

Since primary amino acids like glycine, alanine can't be decarboxylated under oxidative conditions, what would be the best catalyst for this reaction? I was thinking about copying decarboxylases with $...
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Can I synthesize potassium hydroxide from readily available materials?

Where I live, KOH is not readily available and is cost prohibitive to ship. A number of other materials are available, however. I have read similar questions and their answers here, but most are too ...
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Decarboxylation of alpha-amino acids to amines [closed]

In this reaction, what are the ideal circumstances? Which base would be a great choice? How much time does it take for tryptophan to fully decarboxylate? What is the ideal temperature for this type ...
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Making bioplastic at high school level chemistry using PLA/Starch blends

I'm currently working on a high school chemistry essay about biodegradable plastics. I know that there is an easy way to synthesize Thermoplastic Starch (TPS), a starch-based bioplastic using glycerol ...
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How to make a primary alcohol from an alkane?

Alcohols can be made from alkyl halides, which can be made from alkanes. However $3° > 2° > 1° > 0°$ for alkyl halides synthesis from alkanes. What approach could make an alkane with primary ...
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Synthesis of hydrazine with bleach and ammonia

I am trying to make rocket fuel using hydrazine, hydrogen peroxide and home products. I want to put an action figure in orbit. Is there any way to synthesize hydrazine with bleach and ammonia, using $...
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Nitration of pyrrole with sulfuric and nitric acids

Would 2,5-dinitropyrrole be a product of nitration of pyrrole with $\ce{H2SO4/HNO3}$? It seems that 2,5-dinitropyrrole is not formed when using $\ce{Ac2O/HNO3}$ (ref 1). Is this just because of the ...
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Can you develop algorithms to predict synthesis of peptides?

This may be a very foolish question, but do (complex) algorithms exist to predict the steps and materials involved (or therefore different options and paths) in synthesis for the given input of for ...
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How to synthesize cyclopentane from cyclohexane?

Does this route work to synthesize cyclopentane from cyclohexane? Free-radical halogenation. Elimination with strong base to form cyclohexene. Ozonolysis to make di-aldehyde. Oxidation to make di-...
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What is the role of NaCl in the functionalization of gold nanoparticles?

In the functionalization of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) through the sulfur-metal bond, this article (among others) states that $\ce{NaCl}$ is slowly added in the GNPs solution after addition of thiol ...

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