Questions tagged [synthesis]

Synthesis is a purposeful execution of chemical reactions to obtain the desired product. Applies to long and complex natural product syntheses as much as to short one or two-step syntheses. This also covers synthetic problem sets and retrosynthetic analyses.

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13 views

How is lapping slurry made?

I've recently gained an interest in the whole topic of lapping and the creation of flat surfaces. Lapping is done in different ways, but the one I'm interested in is essentially just rubbing 2 ...
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Hock rearrangement of hydroperoxides

Which hydroperoxides undergo a Hock rearrangement? e.g. Cumene hydroperoxide undergoes a Hock rearrangement to yield acetone and phenol Would the following hydroperoxide of ethylbenzene also ...
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Are patents included in literature reviews? [migrated]

I'm writing a literature review on synthesis and biological activity of some organic compounds, and half the references I found on SciFinder are patents. Are patents typically included in literature ...
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What is the role of NaCl in the functionalization of gold nanoparticles?

In the functionalization of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) through the sulfur-metal bond, this article (among others) states that $\ce{NaCl}$ is slowly added in the GNPs solution after addition of thiol ...
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Can we use PI3 in HVZ reaction?

With the help of HVZ reaction, we can get alpha-chloro or alpha-bromo carboxylic acid. But can we make alpha-iodocarboxylic acid with the help of HVZ reaction? I could not find any reference of HVZ ...
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Mechanism of Hypervalent Iodine Phenolic Coupling

I need some help understanding the hypervalent iodine phenolic coupling reaction taking place in this synthesis of morphine, the reaction uses $\ce{PhI(OAc)2}$ as the hypervalent reagent and ...
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How can I synthesize 2‐amino‐3‐(chlorosulfonyl)benzoic acid from toluene or benzene?

I am trying to design a proper synthesis route for 2‐amino‐3‐(chlorosulfonyl)benzoic acid, though methyl 2‐amino‐3‐(chlorosulfonyl)benzoate—using an ester group in lieu of a carboxylic acid—would also ...
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Make Acetic Acid from wood

I would like to know if it would be possible to make Acetic Acid from Wood. I know that you can charcoal wood to get the gases, cool it, and get the liquid. This would yield a bunch of chemicals in a ...
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Why are halogens base sensitive groups (Wolff-Kishner Reduction)?

So while studying about Wolff-Kishner reduction reaction to form alkanes from carbonyl groups. I read that it is not suitable for base sensitive groups as the environment is highly basic and as an ...
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Fluorescein synthesis

What is the mechanism of the fluorescein synthesis performed by von Baeyer?
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Ring formation via oxymercuration-demercuration

I'm solving past problems from a 2014 Organic Chemistry II course (from a publicly available Harvard summer school Canvas page), when I came across this question: The answer (which is the reactant) ...
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Synthesis of Potassium Trioxalatoaluminate (III) Trihydrate

We mixed $\ce{Al}$ powder and hot water. Then we added $\ce{KOH}$ to the $\ce{Al}$ solution and it bubbled heavily (producing $\ce{H2}$). When that was over we added oxalic acid dihydrate to the ...
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Does DIBAL-H reduce alcohol?

Does DIBAL-H reduce alcohol? I was reading an article by Rentsch and Kalesse [1] and I came across this reaction, but could not figure out how the final compound is formed: Reference Rentsch, A.; ...
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Synthesis of anhydrous sodium tungstate

I am interested in preparing an anhydrous sample of sodium tungstate (Na2WO4), which is normally found as the dihydrate. Finding an example of this in literature is proving difficult, I am interested ...
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Converting bromobenzene to 1‐bromo‐3‐methylbenzene

I started by taking $\ce{FeCl3}$ to reduce electron-giving capacity of $\ce{Br}.$ Then we need a methyl at meta, so I thought about Friedel–Crafts acylation, but then also methyl will come at para.
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Retro Diels–Alder reaction in synthesis of corallopyronin A

I was looking at the synthesis of corallopyronin A in the following paper by Rentsch and Kalesse: Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2012, 51 (45), 11381–11384. There is one reaction which is described as ...
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What are the practical differences between the various DMSO oxidations (Swern, etc.)?

Recently, I was reading a paper about a total synthesis of (+)-rubriflordilactone A (the article is open access: Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2015, 54 (43), 12618–12621). In two different steps where an ...
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Synthesizing 2-bromoaniline from bromobenzene

I am trying to synthesize 2-bromoaniline from bromobenzene. I came up with a reaction path, but I want your thoughts on whether this is feasible and can produce a decent yield. Sulfonation of ...
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How to synthesize 3‐cyclopentylpropanal from (chloromethyl)cyclopentane?

I am not sure on how to start, but I think of these two possible ways: Reacting the starting material with Grignard reagent and then oxidise the product with PCC to produce the aldehyde; Hydrolysis ...
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Why use Stork enamine alkylation?

I recently learned about the Stork enamine alkylation method of adding electrophiles to the beta carboxyl position on a molecule. But I can't seem to find out why a direct synthesis is not possible (...
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Reaction analogous to burning that causes cooling rather than releasing heat [closed]

Is it physically and chemically possible to design both a gas and a solid substance, such that there would be a technologically feasible initiation of a chain reaction analogous to the spark that ...
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Why does B12H12 Borane not exist? [duplicate]

Whenever I searched "$\ce{B12H12}$ Borane", I can't seem to find anything, and get met with only the dianion of $\ce{B12H12}$. Why doesn't $\ce{B12H12}$ exist on its own?
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When writing a paper should I describe the procedure thoroughly? [closed]

I have not written any article on a chemistry subject yet, and I want to use good practices from the start. What I have noticed reading papers, is that a lot of times it is not specified the exact ...
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How do I synthesise this tertiary amide from these 5 compounds?

So basically I'm at a loss as to how to proceed. I started with the idea of converting the primary alcohol into an aldehyde and that is where I stoped. I understand that each substituent of the ...
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Potassium chlorate from potassium chloride and hydrogen peroxide

Why can't you make potassium chlorate using the chloride anion from the potassium chloride and having oxygen bond with it from hydrogen peroxide?
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“Synthetic wood” from cellulose and lignin?

Is there any research into making wood from its constituents? From what I know, wood is composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. We can extract these from raw wood, but is there any way we ...
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Cosmetic emulsifier

Hello and good morning! I currently have polysorbate 80 but I am looking into buying Peg 40 hydrogenated castor oil. I need an emulsifier in an oil to water facial cleanser. (20:80 oil to “water.” “...
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A non-life process making glucose from carbon dioxide and water using electricity or light?

update (Sept. 2018): Here is a bit of news that someone might be inclined to cite in a "No, not yet, but..." answer. NASA has announced a CO2 conversion challenge! Get out of your element! ...
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Acid boric preparation [closed]

Is there a simple reaction to yield boric acid ($\ce{H3BO3}$) from boron trifluoride ($\ce{BF3}$)?
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Were gold(II) complexes synthesized for the first time in 2017?

Recently in the Google news feed, I discovered this news: Gold stabilized in very rare oxidation state +II Missing golden link found: Divalent gold complex isolated for the first time in a ...
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Synthesis of Pyrene from Benzene

I know of this ring expansion reaction that can fuse a benzene ring with another benzene ring: Performing this reaction twice gives us phenanthrene How would one go about synthesizing pyrene from ...
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How to acid-wash sand?

I need some acid-washed sand to smooth out boiling in diethyl ether synthesis. I aready have pre-washed sand for general filtration purposes, but it is not labeled as acid-washed. Unfortunately, I ...
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How concentrated does sulfuric acid need to be for nitric acid synthesis (H2SO4 + nitrate salt distillation)?

So I have a home lab setup and recently found myself in need of some nitric acid. I could just buy some, but I thought it would be a useful exercise to make my own. I have plenty of nitrate salts ...
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how is the esterification of amino acid carried on in this reaction

i was asked to synthesis this compound from this amino acid, i first alkylated the alpha carbon using enolate alkylating method then i esterficated the amino acid but i'm doubtful that my steps are ...
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How does the position of hydroxyl group in a nucleotide monomer affect the dehydration synthesis of nucleotides?

In dehydration synthesis of nucleotides, the hydrogen atom from the 3' carbon on the deoxyribose sugar of one nucleotide reacts with the hydroxyl group on the phosphate group of another nucleotide to ...
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408 views

Why is ethanol distilled off before adding water in the first step of a malonic synthesis?

I am doing a malonic synthesis shown below, and I wonder why I should distill ethanol off before adding water in the first step of the reaction (First I add absolute ethanol and solid sodium).
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What is “activated red phosphorus”? What made it so long to be discovered?

[WP = white phosphorus ; RP = red phosphorus ; ARP = activated red phosphorus] Tom from Extraction & Ire did a video two years ago(2018) on converting WP to RP by keeping the former in sunlight ...
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Retrosynthesis suggestion [closed]

Am I even close to solve this problem or it is a complete disaster?
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Weinreb ketone synthesis [closed]

For this problem, Can I use weinreb ketone synthesis? I found the product but not sure it is the right one If the amide react with either R1-Mgbr or R2-Li, then it produces the ketone?
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Phosphoryl bromide reaction with benzoic acid

I am trying to find out how $\ce{POBr3}$ reacts with $\ce{-COOH}$ group (benzoic acid to be specific). I found that it performs an elimination reaction with alcohols to give alkenes. I have also seen ...
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What does washing and drying a solution mean?

After combining two solutions, a direction in a 1970s British chemistry book says to wash the new solution with a mixture of baking soda, table salt, and water. Then it says to dry it with anhydrous ...
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Why does the titanium go to the tungsten filament in the crystal bar process?

I've tried to read a report by the US atomic energy commission [1], but couldn't really find the answer, or maybe I missed it. Why is the gaseous titanium deposited on the tungsten wire/filament ...
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156 views

How to synthesize 4‐[(4,4‐dimethylpentyl)oxy]‐2,2,8,8‐tetramethylnonane starting with 4,4‐dimethylpent‐1‐ene?

My attempt: I don’t know how to add another chain. I think I probably need to react with another A molecule, but I don’t know the mechanism. Can anyone help me with this?
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Which amino acids can be totally synthesized? [closed]

I can't find information regarding which amino acids (say the proteinogenic ones or in general) can be totally synthesized. Is there a reference?
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553 views

Synthesis of anthranilic acid

Yesterday, I performed the synthesis of anthranilic acid (also known as, 2-aminobenzoic acid. I was instructed to use the common route that is also featured on the Wikipedia page for this compound. ...
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Nickel(II) acetylacetonate crystals coming out blue

An experiment in my class has us synthesising the acetylacetonate complex from hydrated nickel chloride being added to a solution of ammonia, acetylacetone and water. The products came out pale blue, ...
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Why did ammonium chloride fumes turned pink in this synthesis?

I was watching the synthesis of tetrasulfur tetranitride performed by Tom on his Youtube channel, Explosion & fire. He followed the basic route: adding ammonia gas to sulfur chlorides ($\ce{SCl2}$ ...
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366 views

How are organic compounds with radioactive atoms synthesized? [closed]

We often see reactions such as these in textbooks to highlight how reaction mechanisms work: How are the radioactive substrates required for these mechanisms synthesized in the first place? There ...
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Laboratory and commercial preparations of aniline other than reduction of nitroarenes [closed]

Till now I could only find one laboratory preparation of aniline, i.e. reducing nitrobenzene with $\ce{Sn}$ and concentrated $\ce{HCl}$. I'm confused if Hofmann degradation is only commercial. I'd ...
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Direct conversion of amides to esters

Rarely does the literature describe the synthesis of esters from amides. I understand that amides are a relatively unreactive functional group but they can easily be hydrolysed to give carboxylic ...

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