Questions tagged [synthesis]

Synthesis is a purposeful execution of chemical reactions to obtain the desired product. Applies to long and complex natural product syntheses as much as to short one or two-step syntheses. This also covers synthetic problem sets and retrosynthetic analyses.

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29
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Why are there no cheap diamond equivalents?

We recently learned in school that diamonds sparkle as the are very optically dense, meaning that it takes longer for light to pass through them, thus meaning that the light totally internally ...
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Interlocked cyclic compounds

Being new to chemistry, there may ought to be some properties I couldn't understand fully. One of them being cyclic compounds. One particular question about this is, whether these cyclic compounds, ...
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495 views

Energy-efficiency aside, what are the chemical constraints on CO₂ capture and methanation?

Synthesising $\ce {CH4}$ from air and water (in a non-biological process) has been proposed as one form of energy storage. What are the chemical constraints at play here? That is to say, what sort of ...
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Clemmensen reduction vs. Wolff-Kishner reduction

In which cases is the Clemmensen reduction is preferred over the Wolff-Kishner reduction? One thing is that the Clemmensen reduction is done under acidic conditions whereas the Wolff-Kishner ...
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Propose a chemical formula for the white solid that forms during the initial stages of the reaction of Sn with benzyl chloride

In my inorganic class, we carried out the synthesis of chlorotribenzyltin, $\ce{SnCl(CH2C6H5)3}$. The synthesis begins with a reflux I'll describe below: In a hood, place 2.0 g (17 mmol) of 325 mesh ...
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What is the mechanism of the reaction between hexane-2,5-dione and nitrous acid?

I don't understand the mechanism of the first reaction; I tried different ways but I can usually find how to make the ring without the double bonds, but it's obviously not the right thing; I think ...
17
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1answer
516 views

Understanding the synthesis of twistane [closed]

What are the products P and Q? This was a question in my test series, but I don't have any experience with bridge head compound regarding the cis and trans transformation. I need help understanding ...
17
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632 views

What is the chemistry behind this “petrol from air” technology?

A recent news report in the UK claimed a breakthrough in making a petrol equivalent from carbon dioxide and water: A small British company has produced the first "petrol from air" using a ...
17
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1answer
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Is it possible that diamond can be grown from aqueous solutions?

Assume a cubic diamond crystal with hydrogen-terminated surface bonds. The terminating hydrogen atoms will form pairs that are geometrically close together in alternating diagonal pairs (think of the ...
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Why are solid phase organics often conjugated to HCl?

Many uncharged organic compounds are sold in solid phase with HCl conjugate - e.g. the antihistamine diphenhydramine.HCl or the derivitizing agent pentafluorobenzyl hydroxylamine.HCl, among many ...
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Designing a theoretical synthesis of methamphetamine from phenylpropyne

I am asked to synthesize "methamphetamine." Note that there is no configuration designated for this molecule, and methamphetamine refers to a very specific configuration. In any case, here are the ...
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Which platonic solids have been built as carbon skeletons?

There are 5 platonic solids: the tetrahedron, the octahedron, the cube, the dodecahedron and the icosahedron. How many of these have been realised as carbon skeletons by chemical synthesis?
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ICHO Synthesis Problem 2018

I've several doubts about this ICHO synthesis problem, which was a part of the preparatory problem package of 2018 (so yes, it's not a part of an ongoing contest) Before sharing the answer given, I'...
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Can recent developments improve the total synthesis of B-12?

The total synthesis of vitamin B-12 by Robert Burns Woodward and Albert Eschenmoser, is over 30 years old. At its time, it was considered a landmark in the field. With current developments (e.g. ...
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Chemical synthesis via 3D printing?

I happened to stumble upon this Nature Chemistry article today. It claims that [...] use a 3D printer to initiate chemical reactions by printing the reagents directly into a 3D reactionware matrix, ...
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Acid catalysed synthesis of ethyl ethoxymethylenemalonate

One synthesis of quinolones begins with the formation of an ethyl ethoxymethylenemalonate, as seen in this Organic Syntheses paper. I've been asked if the malonate derivative would be formed if ...
15
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817 views

Byproducts in Indigo Synthesis?

I have been messing around with making Indigo dye while waiting for bacteria to grow. I have been following the Baeyer-Drewson method. Basically, you mix nitrobenzaldehyde with an acetone water mix ...
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Mechanism for basic hydrolysis of α-chloronitrile to ketone?

In Corey's 1969 prostaglandin synthesis,1 compound 2 is formed from compound 1 by: [...] treatment with 2.5 equiv of potassium hydroxide (added as a hot saturated aqueous solution) in dimethyl ...
14
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Are there any significant uses of the compound formed by magnesium and anthracene?

In an unusual reaction, magnesium reacts with anthracene in THF to form a grignard-like compound called, prosaically, magnesium anthracene: I remember using it briefly in the 1980s. At the time there ...
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1answer
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Synthesis of mandelic acid from benzaldehyde

For an upcoming exam, I have to describe the synthesis of 2-hydroxy-2-phenylacetic acid (mandelic acid) from benzaldehyde. The provided answers describe quite a long process, consisting of 8 stages. ...
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Reactions of alcohol with sulfuric acid

I knew two chemical reactions of alcohol with sulfuric acid $\ce{CH3CH2OH + H2SO4 -> CH2CH2}$ Here product is having a double bond (ethene) and this reaction happens at 443 K temperature. $\ce{...
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1answer
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Synthetic route for the conversion of ethanol to but-1-yne

How do I convert $\ce{CH3CH2OH}$ (ethanol) to $\ce{CH3CH2C#CH}$ (but-1-yne) ? I'm not too good with reaction mechanisms and conversions are beyond me. My Attempt: I've searched through a couple of ...
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What is the geometric configuration of the four fluorine atoms during the synthesis of xenon tetrafluoride?

Neil Bartlett (1932–2008) first synthesized $\ce{XeF4}$ (and $\ce{XeF6}$) in 1962. In the synthesis, a nickel chamber is used, and heated to 400°C, causing the formation of $\ce{NiF4}$, which ...
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Trustworthiness of IC50 values

My two questions: Is replication of recording $\text{IC}_{50}$ values prior to (primary?) publication less common than performing a reaction several times to determine a more reliable record? Provided ...
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Why is solid phase peptide synthesis limited to 70 amino acids?

I'm reading document about Solid phase protein synthesis (SPPS) from Wikipedia, and according to the document: SPPS is limited by yields, and typically peptides and proteins in the range of 70 ...
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How can we synthesize para-nitrophenol

During nitration of phenol, both para- and ortho-nitrophenols will be formed. Is there any way in which we can synthesize para-nitrophenol only?
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Is it possible, chemically, to change a dextrorotatory compound to its levorotatory counterpart?

Is it possible, chemically, to change a dextrorotatory compound to its levorotatory counterpart? E.g., is it possible to change dextrodopa to levodopa?
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722 views

Industrial synthesis of hydrazine

Not a duplicate of Hydrazine synthesis - I know what hydrazine is and am not going near it voluntarily! Looked at this resource on the Internet which cites three major commercial-scale processes: $\...
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Is it possible to synthesise ethers from carboxylic acids?

Is it possible to synthesise ethers from carboxylic acids, and if so, how? By ether I mean an ether in general ($\ce{R-O-R'}$), not just specific examples. I theorised one could perform Fischer ...
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1answer
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How do I synthesize 3-phenyloxirane-2-carbaldehyde from chloroacetonitrile?

How do I synthesize 3-phenyloxirane-2-carbaldehyde from chloroacetonitrile? My proposed route involves: hydrolysis of the nitrile to form a carboxylic acid, and subsequent esterification then, a ...
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1answer
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What are the practical differences between the various DMSO oxidations (Swern, etc.)?

Recently, I was reading a paper about a total synthesis of (+)-rubriflordilactone A (the article is open access: Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2015, 54 (43), 12618–12621). In two different steps where an ...
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How do you create primary amines from alcohols?

By a primary amine I mean a compound where the hydroxyl group of the corresponding alcohol is replaced with an amine group.
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N-fluorosuccinimide: any scope?

All halogen derivatives (except fluorine) of succinimide exist and are used in various chemical processes. What makes N-fluorosuccinimde difficult to prepare? Still chemists have not been able to ...
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Anthracine blue composition

In 1873 a German chemist named Springmühl announced a derivative of alizarin which acted as a blue dye and he sold this dye for a high price. The dye was sometimes called "anthracine blue" and ...
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1answer
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Double alkylation of benzene to form tetralin

I have been asked to suggest a synthesis for the following compound (tetralin) from benzene: I am unsure how to do this. It surely can't be Friedel–Crafts alkylation because of carbocation ...
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521 views

Radical formation via tritium to helium decay

Following on from this question about tritium water, I was wondering whether the decay of tritium to helium-3 has ever been used in organic synthesis. Such a transition would presumably result in no ...
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What are the pros and cons of using Gilman reagent over Grignard reagent to synthesize a hydrocarbon?

As far as I know, in order to synthesize a hydrocarbon $\ce{R-R'}$, Grignard reagent or Gilman reagent could be used. $\ce{RMgX + R'X -> RR' + MgX2}$ $\ce{R2CuLi + R'X -> RR' + LiX + RCu} $ ...
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How can I tell which parts of this example drug are necessary parts of its pharmacophore?

$\hspace{10mm}$ $\hspace{10mm}$(Click image for larger version) This picture identifies a generic drug-enzyme complex taken from an exam script. There is no name given. One part of the exam question ...
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Synthesis of hydrazine with bleach and ammonia

I am trying to make rocket fuel using hydrazine, hydrogen peroxide and home products. I want to put an action figure in orbit. Is there any way to synthesize hydrazine with bleach and ammonia, using $...
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Conversion of methane to propane

Is it possible to chemically convert methane into propane? If so, what is involved and is it economical?
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What is the best way to remove/break carbon carbon bonds?

I am working on synthesis homework and I can not figure out how to remove a carbon substituent from a cyclohexane. What is the best way to remove the three carbons and exchange them for a ketone?
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Increasing the length of a carbon chain in an alkane

What would be the best reaction to increase the carbon chain length in an alkane? Preferably, it would be by one at a time; however, if that is not possible, just generally increasing the total length ...
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Getting 3,4-dimethylhex-3-ene from but-2-ene

How can one get 3,4-dimethylhex-3-ene from but-2-ene ? $\hskip2in$ Using $\ce{Br_2}$ then two equivalents of $\ce{CH_3CH_2MgBr}$, I can get the corresponding alkane (3,4-dimethylhexane) but I don't ...
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Mercury assisted deprotection of dithiane

1,3 dithianes are used in umpolung reactions and can be deprotected by mercury containing compounds - but could anyone help explain what the exact mechanism is? Many texts seem to skim over this by ...
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Converting a cis-alkene to trans-alkene

I was thinking about simple method to convert a cis-alkene alkene like cis-2-butene to trans-2-butene. I came up with this method (the method can also be used to convert trans alkene to cis alkene): ...
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Oxidative chlorination mechanism (sulfide to sulfonyl chloride)

I cannot find much guidance in the literature. Any ideas as to what the mechanism of this reaction might be?
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What is 'autogenous pressure'?

Compound 1 was hydrothermally synthesized under autogenous pressure[1] I've seen this term used a few times, but with no real explanation of what it means forthcoming. I suspect it refers to the ...
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Were gold(II) complexes synthesized for the first time in 2017?

Recently in the Google news feed, I discovered this news: Gold stabilized in very rare oxidation state +II Missing golden link found: Divalent gold complex isolated for the first time in a ...
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A non-life process making glucose from carbon dioxide and water using electricity or light?

update (Sept. 2018): Here is a bit of news that someone might be inclined to cite in a "No, not yet, but..." answer. NASA has announced a CO2 conversion challenge! Get out of your element! ...
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Why is tert-butoxide often used in elimination reactions when it is not necessary?

I understand that tert-butoxide is used to favor the Hofmann product in elimination reactions due to its steric bulk (and thus inability to abstract a proton in a more substituted position); however, ...

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